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A journal dedicated to truth, freedom of speech and radical spiritual consciousness. Our mission is the liberation of men and women from oppression, violence and abuse of any kind, interpersonal, political, religious, economic, psychosexual. We believe as Fidel Castro said, "The weapon of today is not guns but consciousness."

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  • 05/21/17--21:12: i tried tried tried
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  • 05/22/17--06:03: islam needs a martin luther
  • TUESDAY, MAY 22, 2007

    Islam Needs A Martin Luther

    Islam Needs a Martin Luther

    By Marvin X

    The Islamic world needs a Martin Luther, someone to usher in an Age of Reform that will radically alter some of the fundamental values of Islam that are retrograde, archaic, primitive and must be discarded into the dustbin of Muslim history so that Islam can regain its position as a culture of enlightenment rather than darkness.

    At an Islamic Art Conference I attended this past weekend in Oakland, California, along with Muslims from around the world, there was discussion of how Islam has suppressed artists, calling Muslim art haram (religiously proscribed), shirk (associating partners with God) and other negative terms that essentially condemn Islamic art as evil. When I addressed the audience, I noted that I am the “father of Islamic literature in America” by default because other Muslim writers were told to give up the art of writing, creative anyway, but I ignored the ban and thus my work is all that remains, aside from poet Sam Hamad and a few others who’ve written during the last forty years that may surface with proper research. Not only writers, but painters, musicians, dancers, singers and others were suppressed. Even minister Farrakhan, a musician and singer, was made to give up his art.

    But we know it is artists who give people visions and prophecy, thus when they are suppressed, the people are likely to walk in darkness as we see at the present moment.

    In my remarks at the conference, I challenged the Muslim artists to be revolutionary and yes, disobedient—to hell with those who desire to suppress Muslim art, they are the backward ones, they are the evil ones and must be opposed by, yes, any means necessary.

    So much that goes for Islam is ancient and primitive, really, not worthy of discussion in the modern world among people of intelligence. Elijah Muhammad used to say the wisdom of this world is exhausted, and this includes Islam. It must be revolutionized or thrown into the dustbin of ancient thought.

    The Islamic revolution must, will and shall be led by Muslim artists with vision for a day when Islamic culture will be the vanguard of world culture, projecting the most positive and scientific aspects of the new millennium.

    Islamic culture must come from behind the veil, or if anything, put the veil on men and let the women march forth as harbingers of the new world order. Contrary to what men think, women have been found to be the most advanced sector of society, intellectually and spiritually, so we would do well to listen to them for answers to the right path. Clearly, Muslim men are not on sirat al-mustaqim (“the straight path”). Over a billion people of Islamic faith are currently steeped in poverty, ignorance and disease, wallowing in political oppression of the most backward, Stalinist variety. And when the politicians are not oppressing, the mullahs and Imams do the same work, even to the point of following the Christians in the sexual exploitation of boys and girls.

    Let a Muslim Martin Luther step to the front of the line and represent the way of truth, freedom, justice and equality. Muslim collaborators with imperialism, colonialism, and all manner of retrograde religiosity and political oppression must be condemned. Islamic scholars whose theology is based on primitive laws, edicts, fatwas must be ostracized because their actions only add to the utter confusion and ignorance pervading the Muslim world.

    Surely, the destruction the Tsunami brought to South Asia is a sign of Allah’s displeasure with the Muslim people, along with Christians, Hindus and others. If we continue down the path of primitive worship of myths and rituals, surely Allah has even greater destruction planned for those without eyes, ears, the deaf, dumb and blind. After Allah has blessed us with light, how can we yet walk in darkness? How can we possess “supreme wisdom” yet have nothing, behave as spiritual slaves to any storefront imam with a rote memory of Al-Qur’an?

    Let a Martin Luther Muslim arise to destroy idols of ignorance and suppression of creativity. Yes, let everything praise Allah, from the flute to the lute, from the dancer to the poet.

    Marvin X is a distinguished poet, playwright and essayist of the Black Arts Movement (BAM). He is the founder and director of Recovery Theatre in San Francisco. He also co-founded the Black Arts/West Theatre and Black House, which served briefly as the headquarters for the Black Panther Party and as a center for performance, theatre, poetry and music in the Bay Area. Marvin X continues to work as a lecturer, teacher and producer.

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    marvin x and sun ra, 1972, outside marvin's black educational theatre, fillmore district, san francisco.. both were teaching at uc berkeley. sun ra arranged the music for marvin's play take care of business, a five hour concert at the harding theatre on divisadero, without intermission. production included a cast of fifty, including the raymond sawyer dancers and the ellendar barnes dancers, along with the Sun Ra Arkestra and the BET actors.

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    The Stone
    The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless.
    This is the 15th in a series of interviews on race that I am conducting for The Stone. This week’s discussion is with Cornel West, one of the most prominent and provocative intellectuals in public life. He is a professor of philosophy and Christian practice at Union Theological Seminary and professor emeritus at Princeton University. He is the author and editor of more than 30 books, including “Black Prophetic Fire” and “The Radical King.” — George Yancy
    George Yancy: Recently, on Aug. 10, you were arrested along with others outside the courthouse in St. Louis because of the collective resistance against continued racial injustice and police brutality. What was the political atmosphere like there?
    Fire really means a certain kind of burning in the soul that one can no longer tolerate when one is pushed against a wall.
    Cornel West: The black prophetic fire among the younger generation in Ferguson was intense and wonderful. Ferguson is ground zero for the struggle against police brutality and police murder. I just wanted to be a small part of that collective fight back that puts one’s body on the line. It was beautiful because part of the crowd was chanting, “This is what democracy looks like,” which echoes W.E.B. DuBois and the older generation’s critique of capitalist civilization and imperialist power. And you also had people chanting, “We gon’ be alright,” which is from rap artist Kendrick Lamar, who is concerned with the black body, decrepit schools, indecent housing. This chant is in many ways emerging as a kind of anthem of the movement for the younger generation. So, we had both the old school and the new school and I try to be a kind of link between these two schools. There was a polyphonic, antiphonal, call and response, all the way down and all the way live.
    Cornel West, center, and other protesters sitting on the steps of the federal courthouse in St. Louis, Mo., on Aug. 10, 2015.Credit Jeff Roberson/Associated Press
    G.Y.: One of your newest books is entitled “Black Prophetic Fire.” Define what you mean by “black prophetic fire.”
    C.W.: Black prophetic fire is the hypersensitivity to the suffering of others that generates a righteous indignation that results in the willingness to live and die for freedom.
    I think in many ways we have to begin with the younger generation, the generation of Ferguson, Baltimore, Staten Island and Oakland. There is not just a rekindling, but a re-invigoration taking place among the younger generation that enacts and enables prophetic fire. We’ve been in an ice age. If you go from the 1960s and 1970s — that’s my generation. But there was also an ice age called the neoliberal epoch, an ice age where it was no longer a beautiful thing to be on fire. It was a beautiful thing to have money. It was a beautiful thing to have status. It was a beautiful thing to have public reputation without a whole lot of commitment to social justice, whereas the younger generation is now catching the fire of the generation of the 1960s and 1970s.
    G.Y.: When I think of black prophetic fire, I think of David Walker, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, Audre Lorde, Malcolm X, Medgar Evers, Martin L. King, James Baldwin and so many more. In recent weeks, some have favorably compared the writer Ta-Nehisi Coates to Baldwin. I know that you publicly criticized this comparison. What was the nature of your critique?
    C.W.: In a phone conversation I had with Brother Coates not long ago, I told him that the black prophetic tradition is the collective fightback of sustained compassion in the face of sustained catastrophe. It has the highest standards of excellence, and we all fall short. So a passionate defense of Baldwin — or John Coltrane or Toni Morrison — is crucial in this age of Ferguson.
    G.Y.: In what ways do you think the concept of black prophetic fire speaks to — or ought to speak to — events like the tragic murder of nine people at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, S.C.?
    I’m an old Coltrane disciple just like I’m a Christian. You can be full of fire, but that fire has to be lit by a deep love of the people.
    C.W.: Charleston is part and parcel of the ugly manifestation of the vicious legacy of white supremacy, and the younger generation — who have been wrestling with arbitrary police power, arbitrary corporate power, gentrification, the land-grabbing, the power-grabbing in and of the black community, and arbitrary cultural power in terms of white supremacist stereotypes promoted on television, radio and so forth — has become what I call the “marvelous new militancy,” and they embody this prophetic fire. The beautiful thing is that this “marvelous new militancy” is true for vanilla brothers and sisters, it’s true for all colors in the younger generation, though it is disproportionately black, disproportionately women and, significantly, disproportionately black, queer women.
    G.Y.: Why the metaphor of “fire”?
    C.W.: That’s just my tradition, brother. Fire really means a certain kind of burning in the soul that one can no longer tolerate when one is pushed against a wall. So, you straighten your back up, you take your stand, you speak your truth, you bear your witness and, most important, you are willing to live and die. Fire is very much about fruits as opposed to foliage. The ice age was all about foliage: “Look at me, look at me.” It was the peacock syndrome. Fire is about fruits, which is biblical, but also Marxist. It’s about praxis and what kind of life you live, what kind of costs you’re willing to bear, what kind of price you’re willing to pay, what kind of death you’re willing to embrace.
    That was a great insight that Marcus Garvey had. Remember, Garvey often began his rallies with a black man or woman carrying a sign that read, “The Negro is not afraid.” Once you break the back of fear, you’re on fire. You need that fire. Even if that Negro carrying that sign is still shaking, the way that the lyrical genius Kanye West was shaking when he talked about George W. Bush not caring about black people, you’re still trying to overcome that fear, work through that fear.
    The problem is that during the neoliberal epoch and during the ice age you’ve got the process of “niggerization,” which is designed to keep black people afraid. Keep them scared. Keep them intimidated. Keep them bowing and scraping. And Malcolm X understood this better than anybody, other than Ida B. Wells — they represented two of the highest moments of black prophetic fire in the 20th century. Ida, with a bounty on her head, was still full of fire. And Malcolm, we don’t even have a language for his fire.
    G.Y.: Does this process of “niggerization” in American culture partly involve white supremacist myths being internalized by black people?
    C.W.: Yes. When you teach black people that they are less beautiful, less moral, less intelligent, and as a result you defer to the white supremacist status quo, you rationalize your accommodation to the status quo, you lose your fire, you become much more tied to producing foliage, what appears to be the case. And, of course, in late capitalist culture, the culture of superficial spectacle, driven by capital, driven by money, driven by the market, it’s all about image and interest, anyway. In other words, principle drops out. Any conception of being a person of integrity is laughed at because what is central is image, what is central is interest. And, of course, interest is tied to money, and image is tied to the peacock projection, of what you appear to be.
    When you teach black people they are less beautiful, less moral, less intelligent, you defer to the white supremacist status quo.
    G.Y.: Can we assume then that you then would emphasize a form of education that would critique a certain kind of hyperrealism that is obsessed with images and nonmarket values?
    C.W.: That’s right; absolutely. It’s the kind of thing that my dear brother Henry Giroux talks about with such insight. He’s written many books providing such a powerful critique of neoliberal market models of education. Stanley Aronowitz, of course, goes right along with Giroux’s critique in that regard. The notion has to do precisely with that critical consciousness that the great Paulo Freire talks about, or the great Myles Horton talked about, or the great bell hooks talks about in her works. How do you generate that kind of courageous critical consciousness that cuts against the grain and that discloses the operations of market interests and images, capitalist forms of wealth inequality, massive surveillance, imperial policies, drones dropping bombs on innocent people, ecological catastrophe and escalating nuclear catastrophe?
    All of these various issues are very much tied into a kind of market model of education that reinforces the capitalist civilization, one that is more and more obsessed with just interest and image.
    G.Y.: What do you see as the foremost challenge in creating a common cause between past generation and the current generation now “catching fire,” as you put it?
    C.W.: For me, it is the dialectical interplay between the old school and prophetic thought and action. I’m an old Coltrane disciple just like I’m a Christian. You can be full of fire, but that fire has to be lit by a deep love of the people. And if that love is not in it, then the fire actually becomes just a sounding brass and tinkling cymbal that doesn’t get at the real moral substance and spiritual content that keeps anybody going, but especially people who have been hated for so long and in so many ways, as black people have.
    For me, the love ethic is at the very center of it. It can be the love ethic of James Baldwin, Audre Lorde, Toni Morrison, Marvin Gaye, John Coltrane or Curtis Mayfield, but it has to have that central focus on loving the people. And when you love people, you hate the fact that they’re being treated unfairly. You tell the truth. You sacrifice your popularity for integrity. There is a willingness to give your life back to the people given that, in the end, they basically gave it to you, because we are who we are because somebody loved us anyway.
    G.Y.: This idea relates to the collection of Dr. King’s writings you edited, called “The Radical King.” Why did you undertake the job of curating and editing the book?
    C.W.: Because Martin had been so sanitized and sterilized. He has been so Santa Claus-ified, turned into an old man with a smile, toys in his bag to give out, and leaving everybody feeling so good. It was like we were living in Disneyland rather than in the nightmare that the present-day America is for so many poor working people, especially poor black working people. So, we needed a kind of crystallization.
    But there has been a variety of different voices talking about the radical King. You know my closest friend in the world, James Melvin Washington, was one of the very few people that the King family allowed to bring the collection of sermons and writings together. It’s one of the greatest honors for me to be one of the first people that the King family allowed to bring those kinds of writings together across the board, laying out a framework. You’ve got James Melvin Washington’s “A Testament of Hope.” You’ve got other wonderful scholars like James Cone, Lewis Baldwin and others who have done magnificent work in their own way. But, you know, as I pass off the stage of space and time, I want to be able to leave these love letters to the younger generation. I want to tell them that they’re part of a great tradition, a grand tradition of struggle, critical, intellectual struggle, of moral and political struggle, and a spiritual struggle in music and the arts, and so on.
    More From The Stone
    Read previous contributions to this series.
    Contrary to when people talk about King every January, there is in “The Radical King” in fact a particular understanding of this moral titan, spiritual giant and great crusader for justice. So you get a sense of who he really was beyond all of the sanitizing and sterilizing that are trotted out every year in celebration of him. I consider it the most important book I’ve ever done.
    G.Y.: King is well known for quoting the American reformer and abolitionist Theodore Parker’s words, “the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.” What’s your assessment of King’s claim now, in 2015, particularly in the light of the kind of existential plight and angst that black people and poor people are experiencing? Is there an arc of the moral universe?
    C.W.: I think King had a very thick metaphysics when it came to history being the canvas upon which God was in full control. As you know, I don’t have such a thick metaphysics. I am closer to Anton Chekhov, Samuel Beckett and a bluesman. I think that King at the end of his life became more of a bluesman. He began to think: “Lord, have mercy. That arc might be bending, but it sure is bending the wrong way.” After all, he’s dealing with white supremacist backlash, patriarchal backlash and capitalist backlash against working people and the possibility of ecological catastrophe. He was already wrestling with the possible non-existence of life on the earth in terms of the nuclear catastrophe that we were on the brink of. So, he made a leap of faith grounded in a certain conception of history that was heading toward justice. I don’t accept that. I just do it because it’s right. I do it because integrity, honesty and decency are in and of themselves enough reward that I’d rather go under, trying to do what’s right, even if it has no chance at all.
    G.Y.: I was thinking about your existentialist sensibilities that would in fact be critical of the claim that the universe is moral at all. Yet, both you and King share a blues sensibility that places emphasis on touching the pain and yet transcending the pain, and also the importance of the Christian good news.
    C.W.: Oh, absolutely, we are both very similar in terms of never allowing hatred to have the last word, not allowing despair to have the last word, telling the truth about structures of domination of various sorts, keeping track of the variety of forms of oppression so we don’t become ghettoized and tied to just one single issue. Yet, at the same time, we’re trying to sustain hope by being a hope. Hope is not simply something that you have; hope is something that you are. So, when Curtis Mayfield says “keep on pushing,” that’s not an abstract conception about optimism in the world. That is an imperative to be a hope for others in the way Christians in the past used to be a blessing — not the idea of praying for a blessings, but being a blessing.
    John Coltrane says be a force for good. Don’t just talk about forces for good, be a force. So it’s an ontological state. So, in the end, all we have is who we are. If you end up being cowardly, then you end up losing the best of your world, or your society, or your community, or yourself. If you’re courageous, you protect, try and preserve the best of it. Now, you might preserve the best, and still not be good enough to triumph over evil. Hey, that’s the way it is. You did the best you could do. T.S. Eliot says, “For us, there is only the trying. The rest is not our business.” T.S. Eliot was a right-wing brother who was full of wisdom. All you can do is to try; keep on pushing. That’s all you can do.
    G.Y.: When it comes to race in America in 2015, what is to be done?
    C.W.: Well, the first thing, of course, is you’ve got to shatter denial, avoidance and evasion. That’s part of my criticism of the president. For seven years, he just hasn’t or refused to hit it head-on. It looks like he’s now beginning to find his voice. But in finding his voice, it’s either too late or he’s lost his moral authority. He can’t drop drones on hundreds of innocent children and then talk about how upset he is when innocent people are killed. You can’t reshape the world in the image of corporate interest and image with Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and then say that you’re in deep solidarity with working people and poor people. You can’t engage in massive surveillance, keeping track of phone calls across the board, targeting Edward Snowden and Chelsea Manning and others, and then turn right back around and say you’re against secrecy, you’re against clandestine policy.
    So that, unfortunately, if he had come right in and asserted his moral authority over against Fox News, over against right-wing, conservative folk who were coming at him — even if he lost — he would have let the world know what his deep moral convictions are. But he came in as a Machiavellian. He came in with political calculation. That’s why he brought in Machiavellians like Rahm Emanuel and Larry Summers, and others. So, it was clear it was going to be political calculation, not moral conviction.
    How can anyone take your word seriously after seven years about how we need to put a spotlight on racism when, for seven years, you’ve been engaged in political calculation about racism? But then you send out your lieutenants. You send out all your Obama cheerleaders and bootlickers and they say to his critics that he is president of all of America, not black America. And we say white supremacy is a matter of truth. Are you interested in truth? It’s a matter of justice. Are you interested in justice? It’s a matter of national security. Are you interested in national security? Well, we talk about black America. We’re not talking about some ghettoized group that’s just an interest group that you have to engage in political calculation about. When you talk about black people, you’re talking about wrestling with lies and injustice coming at them and their quest for truth and justice. If you’re not interested in truth and justice, no politician ought to be in office, and not just the president. So, we’ve actually had a major setback in seven years; a lost opportunity.
    G.Y.: But is it really possible to speak courageous speech while acting as the most powerful country in the world? Of course, we also have to admit the history of racism preceded Obama’s tenure and will exceed it. My point is that there is a deep tension that exists for someone who desires to embody prophetic fire and yet be in charge of an empire.
    C.W.: I think that’s true for most politicians, actually. Now when it comes to the intellectuals who rationalize their deference to the politician, so they want to pose as prophetic even though they are very much deferential to the powers that be, they need to be criticized in a very intense way. That’s why I’m very hard on the Obama cheerleaders, you see, but when it comes to the politicians themselves, it is very difficult to be a prophetic politician the way in which Harold Washington was or the way Paul Wellstone was or the way Shirley Chisholm was, or the way my dear brother Bernie Sanders actually is. He is a prophetic politician. He speaks the truth about wealth and equality. He speaks the truth about Wall Street. He speaks the truth about working and poor people being afterthoughts in terms of the kind of calculations of the oligarchs of our day. He shows that it’s possible to be a politician who speaks the truth.
    Once you occupy the White House, you are head of the empire. Then you have a choice. We’ve had two grand candidates in the history of the United States. We’ve had Abraham Lincoln and we’ve had Franklin D. Roosevelt. Both of them are full of flaws, full of faults, full of many, many blind spots. But they pushed the American experiment in a progressive way, even given their faults. And that’s what we thought Obama was going to do. We were looking for Lincoln, and we got another Clinton, and that is in no way satisfying.
    That’s what I mean by, we were looking for a Coltrane and we ended up getting a Kenny G. You can’t help but be profoundly disappointed. But also ready for more fightback in post-Obama America!
    This interview was conducted by email and edited. Previous interviews in this series (with Linda Martin Alcoff, Judith Butler, Noam Chomsky, Charles Mills, Falguni A. Sheth and others) can be found here.
    George Yancy is a professor of philosophy at Emory University. He has written, edited and co-edited numerous books, including “Black Bodies, White Gazes,” “Look, a White!” and “Pursuing Trayvon Martin,” co-edited with Janine Jones.
    Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook and on Twitter, and sign up for the Opinion Today newsletter.
    Correction: August 20, 2015
    An earlier version of this article misspelled the name of the first black woman in the United States Congress. It is Shirley Chisholm, not Chisolm. It also included an inaccurate claim by the interviewee, Cornel West, that only he and one other scholar had been given permission by the family of Martin Luther King to collect and publish Reverend King's writings. At least one other scholar, Clayborne Carson of Stanford University has been given such access.

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    US Interventions


    US Military and Clandestine Operations in Foreign Countries - 1798-Present

    Global Policy Forum
    December 2005

    Note: This list does not pretend to be definitive or absolutely complete. Nor does it seek to explain or interpret the interventions. Information and interpretation on selected interventions will be later included as links. Note that US operations in World Wars I and II have been excluded.

    1798-1800 France
    Undeclared naval war against France, marines land in Puerto Plata.
    1801-1805 Tripoli War with Tripoli (Libya), called "First Barbary War".
    1806 Spanish Mexico Military force enters Spanish territory in headwaters of the Rio Grande.
    1806-1810 Spanish and French in Caribbean US naval vessels attack French and Spanish shipping in the Caribbean.
    1810 Spanish West Florida Troops invade and seize Western Florida, a Spanish possession.
    1812 Spanish East Florida Troops seize Amelia Island and adjacent territories.
    1812 Britain War of 1812, includes naval and land operations.
    1813 Marquesas Island Forces seize Nukahiva and establish first US naval base in the Pacific.
    1814 Spanish (East Florida) Troops seize Pensacola in Spanish East Florida.
    1814-1825 French, British and Spanish in Caribbean US naval squadron engages French, British and Spanish shipping in the Caribbean.
    1815 Algiers and Tripoli US naval fleet under Captain Stephen Decatur wages "Second Barbary War" in North Africa.
    1816-1819 Spanish East Florida Troops attack and seize Nicholls' Fort, Amelia Island and other strategic locations. Spain eventually cedes East Florida to the US.
    1822-1825 Spanish Cuba and Puerto Rico Marines land in numerous cities in the Spanish island of Cuba and also in Spanish Puerto Rico.
    1827 Greece Marines invade the Greek islands of Argentiere, Miconi and Andross.
    1831 Falkland/Malvinas Islands US naval squadrons aggress the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
    1832 Sumatra, Dutch East Indies US naval squadrons attack Qallah Battoo.
    1833 Argentina Forces land in Buenos Aires and engage local combatants.
    1835-1836 Peru Troops dispatched twice for counter-insurgency operations.
    1836 Mexico Troops assist Texas war for independence.
    1837 Canada Naval incident on the Canadian border leads to mobilization of a large force to invade Canada. War is narrowly averted.
    1838 Sumatra, Dutch East Indies US naval forces sent to Sumatra for punitive expedition.
    1840-1841 Fiji Naval forces deployed, marines land.
    1841 Samoa Naval forces deployed, marines land.
    1842 Mexico Naval forces temporarily seize cities of Monterey and San Diego.
    1843 China Marines land in Canton.
    1843 Ivory Coast Marines land.
    1846-1848 Mexico Full-scale war. Mexico cedes half of its territory to the US by the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo.
    1849 Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Naval force dispatched to Smyrna.
    1852-1853 Argentina Marines land in Buenos Aires.
    1854 Nicaragua Navy bombards and largely destroys city of San Juan del Norte. Marines land and set fire to the city.
    1854 Japan Commodore Perry and his fleet deploy at Yokohama.
    1855 Uruguay Marines land in Montevideo.
    1856 Colombia (Panama Region) Marines land for counter-insurgency campaign.
    1856 China Marines deployed in Canton.
    1856 Hawaii Naval forces seize small islands of Jarvis, Baker and Howland in the Hawaiian Islands.
    1857 Nicaragua Marines land.
    1858 Uruguay Marines land in Montevideo.
    1858 Fiji Marines land.
    1859 Paraguay Large naval force deployed.
    1859 China Troops enter Shanghai.
    1859 Mexico Military force enters northern area.
    1860 Portuguese West Africa Troops land at Kissembo.
    1860 Colombia (Panama Region) Troops and naval forces deployed.
    1863 Japan Troops land at Shimonoseki.
    1864 Japan Troops landed in Yedo.
    1865 Colombia (Panama Region) Marines landed.
    1866 Colombia (Panama Region) Troops invade and seize Matamoros, later withdraw.
    1866 China Marines land in Newchwang.
    1867 Nicaragua Marines land in Managua and Leon in Nicaragua.
    1867 Formosa Island (Taiwan) Marines land.
    1867 Midway Island Naval forces seize this island in the Hawaiian Archipelago for a naval base.
    1868 Japan Naval forces deployed at Osaka, Hiogo, Nagasaki, Yokohama and Negata.
    1868 Uruguay Marines land at Montevideo.
    1870 Colombia Marines landed.
    1871 Korea Forces landed.
    1873 Colombia (Panama Region) Marines landed.
    1874 Hawaii Sailors and marines landed.
    1876 Mexico Army again occupies Matamoros.
    1882 British Egypt Troops land.
    1885 Colombia (Panama Region) Troops land in Colon and Panama City.
    1885 Samoa Naval force deployed.
    1887 Hawaii Navy gains right to build permanent naval base at Pearl Harbor.
    1888 Haiti Troops landed.
    1888 Samoa Marines landed.
    1889 Samoa Clash with German naval forces.
    1890 Argentina US sailors land in Buenos Aires.
    1891 Chile US sailors land in the major port city of Valparaiso.
    1891 Haiti Marines land on US-claimed Navassa Island.
    1893 Hawaii Marines and other naval forces land and overthrow the monarchy. Read More | President Cleveland's Message
    1894 Nicaragua Marines land at Bluefields on the eastern coast.
    1894-1895 China Marines are stationed at Tientsin and Beijing. A naval ship takes up position at Newchwang.
    1894-1896 Korea Marines land and remain in Seoul.
    1895 Colombia Marines are sent to the town Bocas del Toro.
    1896 Nicaragua Marines land in the port of Corinto.
    1898 Nicaragua Marines land at the port city of San Juan del Sur.
    1898 Guam Naval forces seize Guam Island from Spain and the US holds the island permanently.
    1898 Cuba Naval and land forces seize Cuba from Spain.
    1898 Puerto Rico Naval and land forces seize Puerto Rico from Spain and the US holds the island permanently.
    1898 Philippines Naval forces defeat the Spanish fleet and the US takes control of the country.
    1899 Philippines Military units are reinforced for extensive counter-insurgency operations.
    1899 Samoa Naval forces land
    1899 Nicaragua Marines land at the port city of Bluefields.
    1900 China US forces intervene in several cities.
    1901 Colombia/Panama Marines land.
    1902 Colombia/Panama US forces land in Bocas de Toro
    1903 Colombia/Panama With US backing, a group in northern Colombia declares independence as the state of Panama
    1903 Guam Navy begins development in Apra Harbor of a permanent base installation.
    1903 Honduras Marines go ashore at Puerto Cortez.
    1903 Dominican Republic Marines land in Santo Domingo.
    1904-1905 Korea Marines land and stay in Seoul.
    1906-1909 Cuba Marines land. The US builds a major naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
    1907 Nicaragua Troops seize major centers.
    1907 Honduras Marines land and take up garrison in cities of Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma.
    1908 Panama Marines land and carry out operations.
    1910 Nicaragua Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
    1911 Honduras Marines intervene.
    1911-1941 China The US builds up its military presence in the country to a force of 5000 troops and a fleet of 44 vessels patrolling China's coast and rivers.
    1912 Cuba US sends army troops into combat in Havana.
    1912 Panama Army troops intervene.
    1912 Honduras Marines land.
    1912-1933 Nicaragua Marines intervene. A 20-year occupation of the country follows.
    1913 Mexico Marines land at Ciaris Estero.
    1914 Dominican Republic Naval forces engage in battles in the city of Santo Domingo.
    1914 Mexico US forces seize and occupy Mexico's major port city of Veracrus from April through November.
    1915-1916 Mexico An expeditionary force of the US Army under Gen. John J. Pershing crosses the Texas border and penetrates several hundred miles into Mexican territory. Eventually reinforced to over 11,000 officers and men.
    1914-1934 Haiti Troops land, aerial bombardment leading to a 19-year military occupation.
    1916-1924 Dominican Republic Military intervention leading to 8-year occupation.
    1917-1933 Cuba Landing of naval forces. Beginning of a 15-year occupation.
    1918-1920 Panama Troops intervene, remain on "police duty" for over 2 years.
    1918-1922 Russia Naval forces and army troops fight battles in several areas of the country during a five- year period.
    1919 Yugoslavia Marines intervene in Dalmatia.
    1919 Honduras Marines land.
    1920 Guatemala Troops intervene.
    1922 Turkey Marines engaged in operations in Smyrna (Izmir).
    1922-1927 China Naval forces and troops deployed during 5-year period.
    1924-1925 Honduras Troops land twice in two-year period.
    1925 Panama Marines land and engage in operations.
    1927-1934 China Marines and naval forces stationed throughout the country.
    1932 El Salvador Naval forces intervene.
    1933 Cuba Naval forces deployed.
    1934 China Marines land in Foochow.
    1946 Iran Troops deployed in northern province.
    1946-1949 China Major US army presence of about 100,000 troops, fighting, training and advising local combatants.
    1947-1949 Greece US forces wage a 3-year counterinsurgency campaign.
    1948 Italy Heavy CIA involvement in national elections.
    1948-1954 Philippines Commando operations, "secret" CIA war.
    1950-1953 Korea Major forces engaged in war in Korean peninsula.
    1953 Iran CIA overthrows government of Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh. Read More
    1954 Vietnam Financial and materiel support for colonial French military operations, leads eventually to direct US military involvement.
    1954 Guatemala CIA overthrows the government of President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman.
    1958 Lebanon US marines and army units totaling 14,000 land.
    1958 Panama Clashes between US forces in Canal Zone and local citizens.
    1959 Haiti Marines land.
    1960 Congo CIA-backed overthrow and assassination of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba.
    1960-1964 Vietnam Gradual introduction of military advisors and special forces.
    1961 Cuba CIA-backed Bay of Pigs invasion.
    1962 Cuba Nuclear threat and naval blockade.
    1962 Laos CIA-backed military coup.
    1963 Ecuador CIA backs military overthrow of President Jose Maria Valesco Ibarra.
    1964 Panama Clashes between US forces in Canal Zone and local citizens.
    1964 Brazil CIA-backed military coup overthrows the government of Joao Goulart and Gen. Castello Branco takes power. Read More
    1965-1975 Vietnam Large commitment of military forces, including air, naval and ground units numbering up to 500,000+ troops. Full-scale war, lasting for ten years.
    1965 Indonesia CIA-backed army coup overthrows President Sukarno and brings Gen. Suharto to power.
    1965 Congo CIA backed military coup overthrows President Joseph Kasavubu and brings Joseph Mobutu to power.
    1965 Dominican Republic 23,000 troops land.
    1965-1973 Laos Bombing campaign begin, lasting eight years.
    1966 Ghana CIA-backed military coup ousts President Kwame Nkrumah.
    1966-1967 Guatemala Extensive counter-insurgency operation.
    1969-1975 Cambodia CIA supports military coup against Prince Sihanouk, bringing Lon Nol to power. Intensive bombing for seven years along border with Vietnam.
    1970 Oman Counter-insurgency operation, including coordination with Iranian marine invasion.
    1971-1973 Laos Invasion by US and South Vietnames forces.
    1973 Chile CIA-backed military coup ousts government of President Salvador Allende. Gen. Augusto Pinochet comes to power.
    1975 Cambodia Marines land, engage in combat with government forces.
    1976-1992 Angola Military and CIA operations.
    1980 Iran Special operations units land in Iranian desert. Helicopter malfunction leads to aborting of planned raid.
    1981 Libya Naval jets shoot down two Libyan jets in maneuvers over the Mediterranean.
    1981-1992 El Salvador CIA and special forces begin a long counterinsurgency campaign.
    1981-1990 Nicaragua CIA directs exile "Contra" operations. US air units drop sea mines in harbors.
    1982-1984 Lebanon Marines land and naval forces fire on local combatants.
    1983 Grenada Military forces invade Grenada.
    1983-1989 Honduras Large program of military assistance aimed at conflict in Nicaragua.
    1984 Iran Two Iranian jets shot down over the Persian Gulf.
    1986 Libya US aircraft bomb the cities of Tripoli and Benghazi, including direct strikes at the official residence of President Muamar al Qadaffi.
    1986 Bolivia Special Forces units engage in counter-insurgency.
    1987-1988 Iran Naval forces block Iranian shipping. Civilian airliner shot down by missile cruiser.
    1989 Libya Naval aircraft shoot down two Libyan jets over Gulf of Sidra.
    1989 Philippines CIA and Special Forces involved in counterinsurgency.
    1989-1990 Panama 27,000 troops as well as naval and air power used to overthrow government of President Noriega.
    1990 Liberia Troops deployed.
    1990-1991 Iraq Major military operation, including naval blockade, air strikes; large number of troops attack Iraqi forces in occupied Kuwait.
    1991-2003 Iraq Control of Iraqi airspace in north and south of the country with periodic attacks on air and ground targets.
    1991 Haiti CIA-backed military coup ousts President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
    1992-1994 Somalia Special operations forces intervene.
    1992-1994 Yugoslavia Major role in NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.
    1993-1995 Bosnia Active military involvement with air and ground forces.
    1994-1996 Haiti Troops depose military rulers and restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to office.
    1995 Croatia Krajina Serb airfields attacked.
    1996-1997 Zaire (Congo) Marines involved in operations in eastern region of the country.
    1997 Liberia Troops deployed.
    1998 Sudan Air strikes destroy country's major pharmaceutical plant.
    1998 Afghanistan Attack on targets in the country.
    1998 Iraq Four days of intensive air and missile strikes.
    1999 Yugoslavia Major involvement in NATO air strikes.
    2001 Macedonia NATO troops shift and partially disarm Albanian rebels.
    2001 Afghanistan Air attacks and ground operations oust Taliban government and install a new regime.
    2003 Iraq Invasion with large ground, air and naval forces ousts government of Saddam Hussein and establishes new government.
    2003-present Iraq Occupation force of 150,000 troops in protracted counter-insurgency war
    2004 Haiti Marines land. CIA-backed forces overthrow President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

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    Election Interference? The U.S. Has Done It In 45 Countries Worldwide

    America has a long history of meddling in the elections of foreign countries, new research shows

    Illustration: Diana Quach
    Dec 30, 2016 at 2:25 PM ET

    Russia’s attempt to sway the 2016 election continues to consume American politics as the Obama administration struck back with a series of punishments targeting Russia’s spy agencies and diplomats. The White House on Thursday moved to expel 35 suspected Russian intelligence operatives from the U.S. and impose sanctions on the Kremlin’s two leading intelligence services in response for what the U.S. says were a series of cyberattacks conducted by Russia during the presidential campaign. For the time being, Russian President Vladamir Putin has indicated that he won’t immediately retaliate, though that could change.
    MOREFrom Putin, A Pause In Retaliation Until Trump Is President
    The simmering tit for tat has kept the issue of election meddling burning bright in the national spotlight, fueled even further by the belief among U.S. intelligence agencies that Russia wanted to help Donald Trump capture the presidency. Yet neither country is a stranger when it comes to directly trying to sway the election of other nations. In fact, the U.S. has a long and stunning history of attempting to influence foreign presidential elections, recent research by political scientist Dov Levin shows.
    Levin, a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Politics and Strategy at Carnegie-Mellon University, found that the U.S. attempted to influence the elections of foreign countries as many as 81 times between 1946 and 2000. Often covert in their execution, these efforts included everything from CIA operatives running successful presidential campaigns in the Philippines during the 1950s to leaking damaging information on Marxist Sandanistas in order to sway Nicaraguan voters in 1990. All told, the U.S. allegedly targeted the elections of 45 nations across the globe during this period, Levin’s research shows. In the case of some countries, such as Italy and Japan, the U.S. attempted to intervene in four or more separate elections.
    Levin’s figures do not include military coups or regime change attempts following the election of a candidate the U.S. opposed, such as when the CIA helped overthrow Mohammad Mosaddeq, Iran’s democratically elected prime minister, in 1953. He defines an electoral intervention as “a costly act which is designed to determine the election results [in favor of] one of the two sides.” According to Levin’s research, that includes: peddling misinformation or propaganda; creating campaign material for preferred candidates or parties; providing or withdrawing foreign aid, and; making public announcements that threaten or favor certain candidates. Often, it also includes the U.S. covertly delivering large sums of cash, as was the case in elections in Japan, Lebanon, Italy, and other countries. 
    MOREHow Is Russia Hacking Our Election? An Explainer
    To build his database, Levin says he relied on declassified U.S. intelligence as well as a number of Congressional reports on CIA activity. He also combed through what he considered reliable histories of the CIA and covert American activity, as well as academic research on U.S. intelligence, diplomatic histories of the Cold War, and memoirs of former CIA officials. Much of America’s meddling in foreign elections has been well-documented — Chile in the 1960sHaiti in the 1990s. But Malta in 1971? According to Levin’s study, the U.S. attempted to “goose” the tiny Mediterranean island’s economy in the months leading up to its election that year.
    Much of the America’s electoral meddling occurred throughout the Cold War as a response to containing Soviet influence through the spread of supposed leftist proxies, the findings suggest. And to be clear, the U.S. wasn’t the only one trying to sway foreign elections. By Levin’s count, Russia attempted to interfere in other countries’ elections 36 times between the end of World War II and the end of the 20th century, bringing the total number of electoral interventions by the two countries to 117 during that period.
    Yet even after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the U.S. continued its interventions abroad, including elections in Israel, former Czechoslovakia, and even Russia in 1996, Levin found. Since 2000, the U.S. has attempted to sway elections in Ukraine, Kenya, Lebanon, and Afghanistan, among others.

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  • 05/24/17--06:40: africans rising

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  • 05/24/17--08:25: marvin x on youtube
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    Marvin X (born May 29, 1944) is a poetplaywright and essayist.
    Born Marvin Ellis Jackmon in FowlerCalifornia, he also has taken the Muslim name El Muhajir. His work has been associated with the Black Arts/Black Aesthetics Movement of the 1960s.

    Family life[edit]

    He grew up in Fresno and Oakland, in an activist household. He graduated from Thomas Alva Edison High School in Fresno in 1962. His parents published the Black-owned paper of Fresno, California, called the Fresno Voice.[1] The 1947 paper advertised community events, local businesses, including their own real-estate business, and focused on national and state events including: the promotion of anti-lynching laws, Jackie Robinson Day, New York Freedom trains being integrated, the mission work of the Catholic church with Indian and Negroes, and the $350 million expansion of PG&E in California.
    Marvin X has four living children and one son who transitioned at 39..

    Black Arts Movement[edit]

    Because of X's affiliations with Black Panther activists of the day (Huey P. NewtonBobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver) and his work in Black theater with Ed Bullins, X is considered one of the major essayists and playwrights of the Black Aesthetics Movement.[2]
    He attended Merritt College, where he met Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale, and received his BA and MA in English from San Francisco State University.[3]
    X has taught at San Francisco State UniversityFresno State University, UC Berkeley, UC San Diego, Mills College, Merritt College, Laney College, the University of Nevada at Reno and Reedley Community College. He has lectured nationally at colleges and universities including the University of Arkansas, the University of Houston, Morehouse and Spelman Colleges, the University of VirginiaHoward University, the University of PennsylvaniaTemple UniversityFresno City CollegeMedgar Evers College in Brooklyn, NYU and UMass Boston.
    X attended Oakland City College (Merritt College), where he was introduced to Black Nationalism and became friends with future Black Panther founders Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. X earned a B.A. and M.A. in English from San Francisco State University and emerged as an important voice in the Black Arts Movement (BAM), the artistic arm of the Black Power movement, in the mid-to-late '60s. He wrote for many of the BAM's key journals. He also co-founded, with playwright Ed Bullins and others, two of BAM's premier West Coast headquarters and venues — Oakland's Black House and San Francisco's Black Arts/West Theatre. In 1967, X joined the Nation of Islam and became known as El Muhajir. In the 1980s, he organized the Melvin Black Forum on Human Rights and the first Annual All Black Men's Conference. He also served as an aide to former Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver and created the short-lived Marvin X Center for the Study of World Religions. In 1999, he founded San Francisco's Recovery Theatre. His production of One Day in the Life, the play he wrote about his drug addiction and recovery, became the longest-running African-American drama in Northern California. In 2004, in celebration of Black History Month, he produced the San Francisco Tenderloin Book Fair (also known as the San Francisco Black Radical Book Fair) and University of Poetry. He has taught Black Studies, drama, creative writing, journalism, English and Arabic at a variety of California universities and colleges.
    One of the movers and shakers of the Black Arts Movement (BAM), Marvin X has published 30 books, including essays, poems, plays, anthologies and his autobiography, Somethin’ Proper. Notable books include: Fly to Allah, poems, Beyond Religion, Toward Spirituality, essays on consciousness, and How to Recover from the Addiction to White Supremacy, a manual based on the 12-step Recovery model. In 2011 UC Berkeley Bancroft Library acquired the Marvin X papers. He continues to work as an activist, educator, writer, and producer.

    Awards and honors[edit]

    • Marvin X Day proclaimed by the City and County of San Francisco, 2001
    • Life Member, California Scholarship Federation, Honor Society
    • National Endowment for the Arts Writing Fellowship, 1972
    • National Endowment for the Humanities Planning Grants, 1979


    External links[edit]

    • Black Bird Press News & Review

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    The writer Mohja Kahf, right, at a reading in San Francisco CreditHeidi Schumann for The New York Times
    SAN FRANCISCO, May 11 — Mohja Kahf, an Arab-American writer, draws sharp, funny, earthy portraits of the fault line separating Muslim women from their Western counterparts. At times she captures the breach in a single title, like her poem built around respecting prayer rituals, called “My Grandmother Washes Her Feet in the Sink of the Bathroom at Sears.”
    Occasionally it just takes a few lines, as in “Hijab Scene #2,” a poem that reads in its entirety: “ ‘You people have such restrictive dress for women,’ she said, hobbling away in three inch heels and panty hose to finish out another pink-collar temp pool day.”
    Sometimes it’s a whole book, particularly her novel published last year, “The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf,” a coming-of-age tale set in Indiana, where Ms. Kahf spent much of her own childhood. The novel turned Ms. Kahf into something of an idol among Muslim American women, especially younger ones, struggling to reconcile their faith with a country often hostile toward it.
    “As a Muslim living in the U.S., you run into these little slices of life that are on every page of the book,” said Dina Ibrahim, a 31-year-old broadcasting professor, after Ms. Kahf read recently at the Arab Cultural and Community Center here.
    Continue reading the main story
    For example, Ms. Ibrahim, whose parents are Egyptian, recently experienced the angst of trying to explain to a salesman at Home Depot that she wanted to install a hose in her toilet. Water hoses are ubiquitous in the Arab world, where such ablutions are considered far more sanitary than toilet paper.
    Ms. Kahf, 39, is a professor of comparative literature at the University of Arkansas. She believes that the growing body of Muslim American literature has reached the critical mass where it might be considered its own genre, including works like “The Autobiography of Malcolm X,” Khaled Hosseini’s novel “The Kite Runner” and a current best seller, “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” by Mohsin Hamid.
    The books evoke the mixture of pride and shame involved in being an “other,” with characters living the tug of war between assimilating and maintaining the habits of a good Muslim. “Islam makes you this other race,” Ms. Kahf told a literature class at Stanford University, noting that the genre should appeal to both American Muslims and outsiders seeking a better understanding of the minority. “I can’t not write ethnically, because my characters don’t eat pork and they do use incense.”
    The knowledge that her work might be one window that outsiders use to view Muslim Americans sometimes shapes her choices as a writer, she explained. In an early draft of her novel, for example, its heroine, Khadra Shamy, changed from being a devout teenager wearing black head scarves to taking the veil off entirely as an adult. In later drafts Ms. Kahf changed her mind.
    “People would have read it as ‘We won! She is an escaped Muslim woman!’ ” the author said. “People think that all Arab women are dying to uncover.”
    She ultimately decided that Khadra would remain veiled, at least along the lines that Ms. Kahf is herself — she covers her hair for public appearances, but lets it slip off in restaurants and is less than scrupulous about it on hot days.
    The book is rife with the lurking dangers that Muslims encounter in America. It details the fear and horror of a kindergarten girl discovering that candy cane contains “pig,” or Khadra’s frustration in middle school when the bullies tear off her head scarf repeatedly, and her teachers pretend not to notice.
    Ms. Kahf came to this country in 1971 from Damascus, Syria, before her fourth birthday, and like her, many immigrant Muslim children find themselves caught between hostile worlds at school and parents who are basically clueless. Several young women at the San Francisco reading said that in growing up as the only Muslim girls in their communities, they wish they had had Ms. Kahf’s book to read so they knew that they were not alone.
    Suzanne Shah, a 21-year-old premed student at the University of California, Berkeley, uses Ms. Kahf’s poetry book, “E-mails from Scheherazad,” in a class she helps tutor.
    “It was refreshing for me to find that there is a poet out there who speaks the same language that I speak and thinks the same way I do,” Ms. Shah said.
    Ms. Shah, who is unveiled, said she particularly likes a poem castigating those trying to make a battleground out of Muslim women’s hair, with Muslims treating the veil as far too sacred and Westerners misconstruing taking off the veil as liberation.
    “It’s not war, it’s not freedom, it’s just hair,” said Ms. Shah, who points out to her students how Ms. Kahf is more observer than judge. In the poem about American women seeing her grandmother washing her feet before prayers, for example, Ms. Kahf writes, “They fluster about and flutter their hands, and I can see a clash of civilizations brewing in the Sears bathroom.”
    Not that Ms. Kahf entirely avoids choosing sides; her political poems can be searing. In “We Will Not Deny the Holocaust,” she lays out the common Arab perspective that Israel literally gets away with murder, using the Holocaust as a canopy to deflect criticism of widespread human rights abuses against the Palestinians.
    Her father went into exile because he was a member of the banned Muslim Brotherhood, and her husband, Najib Ghadbian, a political science professor, is involved in Syrian exile politics. During a radio interview here, Ms. Kahf called on the Syrian government to release Anwar al-Bounni, a scrappy human rights lawyer just sentenced to five years in jail.
    She believes the emphasis on tradition in the Arab world long ago warped the open spirit of Islam. Although Ms. Kahf grew up in a devout household, she finds the Muslim Brotherhood’s interpretation of Islam too narrow, calling it an anticolonial political movement that is just not spiritual enough to incorporate all facets of Islam.
    That would include sex, and Ms. Kahf writes a rather graphic online sex column that has drawn ire, even a death threat, from the orthodox. One column described a dream in which a revered medieval Islamic scholar is described in flagrante delicto, while another depicts a Syrian village where the local imam has declared that women too can take more than one spouse.
    Relations between the sexes is a subject she said she often used when asked to do readings to church groups around Arkansas. The women cannot always relate to stories about Muslim immigrant anxieties, she said, but she finds common ground with poetry talking about a man’s chest as “that forested mountain with the bluffs and crags where a woman likes to hide.”
    In one poem about the holy fasting month of Ramadan, she laments that after abstaining from food and sex all day, then gorging at night, nobody is ever in the mood for lovemaking. “Ramadan is not a time for thongs” was a huge laugh line for her San Francisco audience.
    Her readings are rather un-self-conscious. She waves her hands. She sings, she dances. In fact, she can sometimes seem almost oblivious to her surroundings. Driving across the Stanford campus, she stopped right in the middle of an intersection to light a clove cigarette.
    Her audiences say Ms. Kahf embodies what they strive for, in that she is someone who both respects her own faith and yet uses the advantages offered by being an American, like free speech, to explore its every corner.
    “It is just so refreshing for someone to put a lighter spin on being a Muslim in America,” said Ms. Ibrahim, the San Francisco professor. “Are we only going to talk about the war, are we only going to talk about how our faith is so misunderstood? It gets really old.”

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    University of California, Merced students with Marvin X after a lecture/discussion/reading of his BAM classic Flowers for the Trashman in Kim Macmillan's class. Kim says, "My students love Marvin X and his writings, yes, my White, Asian and Latino students!" The language in Trashman caused a revolution in the psyche of youth seeking liberation in the 1960s. Even though the drama department at San Francisco State University produced the play while he was an undergrad, the director wanted him to tone it down, which he refused and later dropped out to establish Black Arts West Theatre in the Fillmore. There, the San Francisco Police Department attempted to  shut down the theatre  when they heard the language in his play and the works of Baraka, Ed Bullins, Jimmy Garett, Ben Caldwell, Sonia Sanchez, et al.

    This document is in the National Museum of African American History and Culture,
    Smithsonian, Wash. D.C.

    Multi-cultural students perform his BAM classic Flowers the Trashman at UC Merced.

    One cannot begin to comprehend the role psycho-linguistics played in the Black Arts Movement, sister of the Black Power Movement (Larry Neal), mother of the Black Power Movement (Marvin X), until one understand's the power of language that was critical in the mental liberation of brothers and sisters during the 60s and 70s. Language usage in the plays and poetry nullified any notion of obscenity and profanity. Instead, audiences were euphoric to hear such terms as motherfucker, bitch, nigguh, honky, devil and other words that ignited audiences and finally liberated them from the puritan speech of the petit-bourgeoisie. The BAM poets and playwrights took Black language to a new level of freedom. Amiri Baraka, aka LeRoi Jones set the tone with his play The Dutchman. Marvin X's poem Burn, Baby, Burn on the Watts Riot, 1965, was recited by Black Panther co-founder Bobby Seale from Oakland to Harlem. Even before the BPP was born, a choice line from Marvin's poem said, "Motherfuck the police/and Parker's (Chief of the LAPD) sister too!" Because of the language in Marvin's play Flowers for the Trashman and Ed Bullin's It Has No Choice, their Black Arts West Theatre was invaded by the San Francisco Police Dept. When Flowers for the Trashman was performed at Oakland's Laney College, the OPD threatened to arrest the entire cast. Meanwhile, the UC Berkeley Free Speech Movement was in full swing but had no connection with the BAM.

    The Berkeley Free Speech Movement had no connection whatsoever with the BAM psycho-linguistic revolution. Dr. Nathan Hare would call their revolution "How to Recover from White Supremacy Type I." He called ours Type II Recovery from White Supremacy. See Marvin X's manual How to Recovery, foreword by Dr. Nathan Hare, Black Bird Press, Berkeley. Ironically, the Berkeley Free Speech Movement has morphed into a pseudo liberal Stalinist political correctness censorship of free speech that would have horrified Mario Savio.

    Merritt College student Bobby Seale performed the lead role  in Marvin's second play Come Next Summer, 1965, about a young black man finding himself then joining the revolution and recited his poem Burn, Baby Burn from Oakland to Harlem. Marvin X has never told Bobby he was in the audience in Harlem outside the Theresa Hotel at 7th Ave. and 125th, in 1968, when Bobby recited his poem.

    Earlier,  Flowers for the Trashman was performed at Oakland's Merritt College, invited by the Soul Students Advisory Council, aka BSU, Bobby Seale says, "After Marvin's play was performed, the student movement at Merritt College took off giving birth the Black Panther Party." It was the language that liberated students and inspired them to join the revolution. People realized they were indeed free to say anything and no longer proscribed by black bourgeoisie linguistics. The bourgeoisie was horrified but the black masses were liberated psycho-linguistically by the BAM languange.

    As per the psycho-linguistics of  Marvin X, Master Black literary critic James G. Spady says, "When you listen to Tupac Shakur, E-40, Too Short, Master P or any other rappers out of the Bay Area of Cali, think of Marvin X. He laid the foundation and gave us the language to express Black male urban experiences in a lyrical way."

    Of course let us not fail to mention the female poet/playwrights such as Sonia Sanchez with her choice line, "What a white woman got cept her white pussy...."

    Ancestor Amiri Baraka and Marvin X enjoyed a 47 year friendship. He literally grew up as part of the Baraka family. Amina says when Marvin X came to stay with us, we knew we were going laugh and be happy!
    Mrs. Amina Baraka. Marvin X has read her poetry and says it is similar to the vibration of Winnie Mandela and Nelson. You don't really want to hear what Amina got to say,but you shall! Amina is one of the greatest revolutionary women in my life. If I could tell her story, I would, but let women tell it. You don't want to hear my version! As Sun Ra taught, you don't want to hear the low down dirty truth!

    Artist Emory Douglas came into the Black House as a poet reciting his poem Revolutionary Things.
    Marvin X welcomed Emory along with Samuel Napier and others who became members of the BPP.
    Marvin took Eldridge Cleaver to Bobby Seale's house in North Oakland, after which Eldridge joined the BPP as Minister of Information.

    The  counter part of the BAM linguistic revolution was Cleaver's use of similar speech in the Black Liberation Movement, although we must understand the BAM and BLM were one fist in the devil's eye!

    Marvin X is one of the few still true to the BAM linguistic tradition. Riding home from NYC to Newark with Amiri and Amina Baraka, Marvin recited a poem in the car until Amiri told him to shut up in the presence of Amina. Marvin was shocked to be censored by the man who helped teach him how to say motherfucker, although he did learn how to say motherfucker growing up on the streets of West Oakland. Listen to a line from a Baraka poem, "Back against the wall, motherfucker, this is a stick up...." In Dutchman, he said, "Up your ass, feeble-minded ofay! Up your ass...."

    Marvin's chapbook Fly to Allah established him as the father of the literary genre known as Muslim America literature, according to Dr. Mohja Kahf, Professor of English and Islamic Literature at the University Arkansas, Fayetteville.
     Poet/novelist/professor Dr. Mohja Kahf

    Fly to Allah was written during his days in Harlem, 1968-69, while under the influence of the Nation of Islam and contained no "bad words," i.e., profanity. Sonia Sanchez cleaned up her mouth while she was in the Nation of Islam.

    Sonia Sanchez, Queen of the Black Arts Movement

     Angela Davis, Marvin and Sonia Sanchez

    On a few occasions, Marvin X tried to accommodate the Muslim puritans, revolutionary puritans and the black bourgeoisie. In TDR, The Drama Review, Marvin X published a B version of Flowers for the Trashman called Take Care of Business, later made into a musical arranged by Sun Ra and his Arkestra. In his puritan Muslim madness, Marvin took out a sex scene in TCB. When Sun Ra learned of this, he scolded Marvin for taking out the best scene in the play. "Marvin, you want to be so right you're wrong! The people don't want the truth, they want the low down dirty truth!"

    Marvin X and Sun Ra, two of the most advanced minds of the Black Arts Movement. They lived on the other side of time, Sun Ra would say. Gemini twins: Sun Ra, May 22, Marvin X, May 29.

    In his recovery classic One Day in the Life, critic Wanda Sabir said the language was so strong it would knock the socks off old ladies!' FYI, hearing of Wanda's comment, some "old ladies" said they wanted their socks knocked off! The play became a cult classic in the Bay Area recovery community. Well, the language and situations were so raw, some recovering addicts cried like they were at their mama's funeral. When Marvin confronted the lady in the lobby of San Francisco's Lorraine Hansberry Theatre, she told him she was crying because she saw her life on stage and it was overwhelming.
    Quentin Easter and Stanley Williams RIP

     But the Lorraine Hansberry Theatre director's Stanley Williams and Quentin Easter, told Marvin the Black bourgeoisie wanted to support his recovery drama but the language was too strong for them. Indeed, after hearing his language, there were wives who marched their husbands out of the theatre. Again, Marvin wrote a B script to accommodate the bourgeoisie negroes, but they still did not support his drama seen by recovering addicts of every stripe, including gays, lesbians, prostitutes, Native Americans, Latinos, Asians, et al. Alas, when the recovering audience came again to see One Day in the Life, they were horrified to learn he had accommodated the bourgeoisie with a Miller Lite version and consequently walked out in disgust. For sure, Marvin X found the recovery audience the most down to earth audience of all and they knew the script and refused to accept his B version to satisfy the linguistic proclivities of the bourgeoisie negroes.


    BAM co-founder Askia Toure' and Marvin X, NYU memorial for Amiri Baraka and Jayne Cortez.

    The Journal of Black Poetry, Bible of the BAM revolution. The psycho-linguistic revolution was advanced by poetry published in the Journal, published and edited by Jose Gonclaves, aka Digane.

    Marvin and Danny Glover, comrades since their student days at San Francisco State University and later at Black Arts West Theatre in the Fillmore.

    Umar ben Hasan and Abiodun of the Last Poets, comrades of Marvin X since their Harlem days, 1968-69. The Last Poets extended the psycho-linguistic revolution into Rap although the rappers made the BAM language reactionary at the behest of record producers representing the oppressors in their attempt to crush Black Liberation. First, crush the psyche, flip the language into non-sense and the ass will follow! In the pic below, Marvin and Felipe Luciano of The Last Poets. At the NYU memorial for Amiri Baraka and Jayne Cortez, Felipe told the audience, "Marvin X is a motherfucker!"

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  • 05/24/17--19:57: memorial day

  • Memorial Day, 2007

    I am a veteran
    Not of foreign battlefields
    Like my father in world war one
    My uncles in world war two
    And Korea
    Or my friends from Vietnam
    And even the Congo “police action”
    But veteran none the less
    Exiled and jailed because I refused
    To visit Vietnam as a running dog for imperialism
    So I visited Canada, Mexico and Belize
    Then Federal prison for a minute
    But veteran I am of the war in the hood
    The war of domestic colonialism and neo-colonialism
    White supremacy in black face war
    Fighting for black power that turned white
    Or was always white as in the other white people
    So war it was and is
    Every day without end no RR no respite just war
    For colors like kindergarten children war
    For turf warriors don’t own and run when popo comes
    War for drugs and guns and women
    War for hatred jealousy
    Dante got a scholarship but couldn’t get on the plane
    The boyz in the hood met him on the block and jacked him
    Relieved him of his gear shot him in the head because he could read
    Play basketball had all the pretty girls a square
    The boyz wanted him dead like themselves
    Wanted him to have a shrine with liquor bottles and teddy bears
    And candles
    Wanted his mama and daddy to weep and mourn at the funeral
    Like all the other moms and dads and uncle aunts cousins
    Why should he make it out the war zone
    The blood and broken bones of war in the hood
    No veterans day no benefits no mental health sessions
    No conversation who cares who wants to know about the dead
    In the hood
    the warriors gone down in the ghetto night
    We heard the Uzi at 3am and saw the body on the steps until 3 pm
    When the coroner finally arrived as children passed from school

    I am the veteran of ghetto wars of liberation that were aborted
    And morphed into wars of self destruction
    With drugs supplied from police vans
    Guns diverted from the army base and sold 24/7 behind the Arab store.
    Junior is 14 but the main arms merchant in the hood
    He sells guns from his backpack
    His daddy wants to know how he get all them guns
    But Junior don’t tell cause he warrior
    He’s lost more friends than I the elder
    What can I tell him about death and blood and bones
    He says he will get rich or die trying
    But life is for love not money
    And if he lives he will learn.
    If he makes it out the war zone to another world
    Where they murder in suits and suites
    And golf courses and yachts
    if he makes it even beyond this world
    He will learn that love is better than money
    For he was once on the auction block and sold as a thing
    For money, yes, for the love of money but not for love
    And so his memory is short and absent of truth
    The war in the hood has tricked him into the slave past
    Like a programmed monkey he acts out the slave auction
    The sale of himself on the corner with his homeys
    Trying to pose cool in the war zone
    I will tell him the truth and maybe one day it will hit him like a bullet
    In the head
    It will hit him multiple times in the brain until he awakens to the real battle
    In the turf of his mind.
    And he will stand tall and deliver himself to the altar of truth to be a witness
    Along with his homeys
    They will take charge of their posts
    They will indeed claim their turf and it will be theirs forever
    Not for a moment in the night
    But in the day and in the tomorrows
    And the war will be over
    No more sorrow no more blood and bones
    No more shrines on the corner with liquor bottles teddy bears and candles.
    --Marvin X
    25 May 2007
    Brooklyn NY

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    May 24 at 8:54 PM

    Oakland City Hall
    TUESDAY, MAY 30th starting at 5:30 pm in City Hall City Council will be holding a Special Budget Meetingwhere Council President & Vice MayorLarry Reid will be presenting the Council’s budget. Councilmembers need to hear the community's priorities! Make your voice heard! This will be one of the last opportunities the public has to influence our councilmembers within their Council Chambers before the City's 2017-19 budget is finalized
    We need the room packed with at least 100 OCNC members!!

    Meet at Betti Ono at 4:30pm to pick up your t-shirt and talking points. We'll also have printouts for you at City Hall. All meetings will be inside Council Chambers on the third floor of City Hall.

    Right now fill out a speaker card + RSVP on Facebook: 
    Go to
    1) Put  "Open Forum" in as the agenda item you wish to speak on

    Make your elected officials say YES to more
    arts and culture funding to

    What we WANT: 

    1) RE-ESTABLISH AN ARTS & CULTURE COMMISSION that is progressive, prioritizes equity for low-income communities of color, and accountable to community members; 
    2) SET ASIDE MORE ARTS & CULTURE FUNDING  to protect and sustain arts and culture communities and spaces, as well as increase funding that impacts low-income communities of color. We want to be visible to elected officials so that they take our demands seriously and incorporate them into the 2017-2019 budget.

    These talking points will guide your public comments.
    *TAKE A LOOK at our budget policy memo HERE. We’ve been sharing this with Oakland’s elected officials which specify our platform and asks for the 2017-2019 budget cycle.

    We want to be visible to elected officials so that they take our demands seriously and incorporate them into the 2017-2019 budget.

    The time to act is NOW! See you on May 30th! RSVP right now!

    Thank you to all that could make it to all the Oakland Budget CommunityTown Hall meetings hosted in each district by City Councilmembers these past 2 weeks! We have heard promising feedback from city officials and councilmembers that our voice is being heard, but that we need to KEEP SHOWING UP! 
    As a reminder, the last Oakland Budget Community Forum is this Thursday, May 25th, 2017 from 6:30-8:30pm @ Lincoln Recreation Center, 261 11th St., Oakland, CA 94607. District 2/ Abel Guillen will be hosting this town hall.

    If you have any questions, please send an email to
    Please be on the look out for our reminders and updates on developments with the budget.
    Until soon!




    3rd Street Poles Get Red, Black and Green Stripes In Honor Of Bayview's Black Heritage

    This morning, SF Public Works began a Baybeautification initiative, painting the poles along the Third Street commercial corridor (from Evans to Jamestown avenues) with red, black and green stripes to celebrate the neighborhood's African-American heritage.
    The project was spearheaded by District 10 Supervisor Malia Cohen, who issued a statement explaining the reasoning behind the painting:
    “The intention of painting the flagpoles is to create a unifying cultural marker for the Bayview, in the same vein as the Italian flags painted on poles in North Beach, the designation of Calle 24 in the Mission and the bilingual street signs and gates upon entering Chinatown.
    This is about branding the Bayview neighborhood to honor and pay respect to the decades of contributions that African-Americans have made to the southeast neighborhood and to the city. It’s also beautification for the streetscape.”
    With Black History Month around the corner, many neighbors were pleased to see the tribute to African-Americans' community legacy. Several early risers in the community took photos of the poles being painted, expressing their gratitude.

    Tyson of SF Public Works paints a pole. | Photo: Barbara Gratta/Gratta Wines

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  • 05/26/17--03:13: nyc african arts festival

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  • 05/26/17--12:03: theatre in india

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