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- 08/09/14--19:53: _Marvin X hospitaliz...
- 08/10/14--21:00: _TEMPLE UNIVERSITY P...
- 08/10/14--23:30: _MURDER UNDER THE CO...
- 08/10/14--23:39: _THE BLACK MAN IS UN...
- 08/11/14--09:16: _Hundreds of Thousan...
- 08/14/14--13:10: _Ten Points for Yout...
- 08/14/14--16:10: _Hands up, don't shoot!
- 08/14/14--22:06: _Review: The Quranic...
- 08/16/14--10:42: _Block the Boat--End...
- 08/16/14--12:00: _Black the Boat--3pm...
- 08/17/14--10:05: _Long live the teach...
- 08/17/14--14:59: _Blowback in Ferguson
- 08/18/14--21:12: _Freedom Archives Be...
- 08/19/14--07:55: _We Charge Genocide:...
- 08/19/14--20:39: _How the recession t...
- 08/19/14--21:18: _Wanted for Murder u...
- 08/20/14--10:26: _Night of Pain, Nigh...
- 08/21/14--01:15: _Russia signs long t...
- 08/21/14--08:49: _Minister Farrakhan ...
- 08/21/14--09:04: _Marvin X and the BA...
- 08/10/14--21:00: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY PROF SHOCKS STUDENTS BY RESIGINING
- 08/10/14--23:30: MURDER UNDER THE COLOR OF LAW IN MISSOURI
- 08/11/14--09:16: Hundreds of Thousands March against Zionism
- 08/14/14--13:10: Ten Points for Youth Survival in the Street
- 08/14/14--16:10: Hands up, don't shoot!
- 08/14/14--22:06: Review: The Quranic Concept of WAR
- 08/16/14--10:42: Block the Boat--End Israeli Apartheid
- 08/16/14--12:00: Black the Boat--3pm West Oakland BART, Saturday, August 16
- 08/17/14--10:05: Long live the teachings of the Most Honorable Marcus Garvey
- 08/17/14--14:59: Blowback in Ferguson
- 08/18/14--21:12: Freedom Archives Benefit with Dead Prez, Kev Choice, Sellassie
- 08/19/14--07:55: We Charge Genocide: From Gaza to Ferguson
- 08/19/14--21:18: Wanted for Murder under the color of law: Darren Wilson
- 08/20/14--10:26: Night of Pain, Night of Rage by Mumia Abu Jamal
- 08/21/14--01:15: Russia signs long term agreement with China
- 08/21/14--08:49: Minister Farrakhan responds to Mike Brown shooting in Ferguson
- 08/21/14--09:04: Marvin X and the BAM Poets Choir and Arkestra at UC Merced BAM Conf
Marvin X, the man who gave up domestic violence some thirty years ago and since then has championed equality of the genders and the liberation of women from patriarchal domination (Mythology of Pussy and Dick, a male/female dialogue, as opposed to Vagina Monologue), had to spend the last two days in Oakland's Highland Hospital nursing a severe eye injury from a blow to his left eye by his female friend who was arrested and jailed for hitting the poet with a powerful blow to his eye, after she refused to leave his bedroom.
A shoving match began but ended quickly when the poet suffered a straight hit to his left eye. "I felt like Muhammad Ali hit me. It hurt immediately and even morphine didn't stop the pain."
In all my years as a teenager fighting on the street, I'd never suffered a blow to the eye. In my youth, I used to gang fight, but my objective was to always get the first punch in--they call it the sucker punch. Obviously, in this situation, I was not trying to hurt the woman, just tried to shove her out my room.
Trust me, I had the strength and energy to physically handle her. I was trying to be a nice old colored man, for I have said one must decide whether you want to kill the people or heal the people. I want to heal. I don't want to go down saying I destroyed the people I was supposed to be helping and healing. I don't want to go out like my friend Huey Newton, killed by the very youth he was trying to save.
My brother Ali (and sister Debbie) came over when I got home from the hospital. They were there when the police arrived. My brother said he had been hit in the eye many times in street fights. He said you just get drunk and get over it. As per what he would do in my situation, he said the woman would be dead, straight up. Of course my brother spent most of his life in prison as a result of violence. He was in prison along with George Jackson, Eldridge Cleaver, Sundiata Tate, David Johnson, Kumasi, Alprintis Bunchy Carter, et al.,
I and my family (there are nine siblings) are happy he has given up violence and just lives in his apartment enjoying solitude. He is a year older than I, 71. He got drunk at my 65th birthday party in Berkeley, and has not had a drink since. We are so proud of him. I was just happy he was present at my birthday party, I didn't give a damn about his getting drunk, but apparently it shamed him into sobriety. Thank God! or the Higher Power since my brother is an atheist.
Like so many brothers, he spent his life in the California Department of Corrections, from Juvenile Hall and California Youth Authority to San Quentin, Soledad, Folsom, etc. When people ask me about getting involved in the prison movement, I laugh. My whole life has been impacted by my brother in the CDC. He was never there as my older brother. I missed him and loved him. A young sister Roxane has a poem called Federal Offense on the pain she felt as a result of her brother in the criminal justice system.
Marvin X Knew He was severely wounded
The poet knew he was badly wounded so immediately after the fight he departed to the hospital. Oakland police interviewed him at the hospital but he refused to press charges. Before leaving his house, he told the woman not be there when he returned. After spending the night in the hospital, when he returned the next day from the hospital, she was still at the house, although she had taken her two children away.
Marvin X again asked her to leave, but she refused and called 911. When officers arrived and saw his condition, the lady was immediately arrested, after Marvin X reluctantly consented to the arrest. "I didn't want her jailed, I only wanted her to leave my house, but the officers said I had to press charges, so I did. The officer in charge, a female, said abuse of men by women is totally unacceptable, and we are going to press charges against her to the fullest extent of the law." The officer read the hospital report that said Marvin may lose use of his left eye.
There were no visible injuries to the woman. "I long ago stopped fighting women, so I did not try to hurt her, only asked her to leave my bedroom and go into the living room with her children. At this stage in my life, I consider myself a liberator of women, not their oppressor. I have learned in my 70 years that physical, verbal and emotional violence is to no avail--eventually the love is drained from the hour glass and the thrill is gone."
People who know me know I am a very patient person, even though I am full of poetic passion. I told my lady friend who suffers mental health issues (don't we all?) that I must be patient with my patients. And I tried to patient with her and her children, naturally the children suffer mental illness as well. How could they not have feeling of trauma, abandonment and emotional abuse. Fathers, if you don't call your children, you are guilty of child abuse, a billboard said when I was a dope fiend in the Tenderloin of San Francisco. I have done as the 12 Step model says, make amends to those you have harmed, and I have been successful, especially with my children and their mothers. My children and their mothers have forgiven me and today I have the very best relations with my children and their mothers. Allah, God, is Great. Praise to the Ancestors.
Amiri Baraka said if you are patient too long, you become the patient!"
I am truly sad at the state of male/female relations today, and I know there must be a revolutionary change in our behavior. I have tried to be an example of such, but shit happens and it is what it is.
Right now I am healing from my injuries and hope my vision is not permanently marred. As I said earlier, I did not want the sister jailed, instead, I suggest long term mental health treatment and education which she lacks and many young and older women lack as well. The mental health and education that is needed is called womanhood and manhood training, or rites of passage.
The Nation of Islam had FOI (Fruit of Islam, manhood rites for men and MGT for women, womanhood rites for women--we can either use such models or go to Africa for manhood and womanhood rites of passage as described in Jomo Kenyatta's ethnography Facing Mt. Kenya, but our children cannot continue in abysmal ignorance of common sense knowledge of essential gender wisdom.
In talking with the King of the Yoruba's at the African Village in Sheldon, South Carolina, the young king or Oba said as a child he was taken from the women at age seven and endured manhood training. And the women endured the same. This is not a joking matter. Sadly, whenever I asked my lady friend about womanhood training, she had no knowledge of such. Yet she complained many times that her mother was too ignorant to teach her anything about womanhood, after all, she confessed, her grandmother was ignorant as well.
Thus we have generations and generations of ignorance. My lady friend confessed she was ignorant of her body even though she was a mother of three, two daughters and a son. In her mental illness, she was simply ignorant of her body and in fear and terror of it. We wonder how many young women are in a similar state and condition. We are so presumptuous about our people's awareness of simple things. We have no understanding of their lack of simple things or common sense issues. No amount of money will solve such issues of abysmal ignorance.
We must simply spread consciouness throughout the land as we propose with our 27 City Tour in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Black Arts Movement. This must not only be a celebration but a manhood and womanhood rites of passage to usher the next generation into North African cultural consciousness. The young North American men and women need help in solving their sexual identity crisis that is the natural and normal process of maturity. When such is absent, as the great Joseph Campbell taught us, we see the result in the daily papers, stories of youth gone mad.
In my lady's case, she said abysmal ignorance was the norm in her family. She told me repeatedly she learned nothing from her mother about womanhood training since her mother was ignorant and mentally ill as well. I can tell you I tried to help but mental health issues that derive from oppression will not be solved overnight.
Finally, don't think I was walking on solid mental health ground. There were mental health issues in my family as well. In truth, I know of no families who have a clean bill of health. My mother had a mental break down. My son committed suicide. So I am grieving 24/7 at the death of my son and thus my eternal concern with such matters. This is not a Miller Lite matter. I shall deal with such matter until I depart this earth since I clearly understand the relationship between mental illness and oppression.
In my personal case, I tried to be patient but, as Amiri Baraka, I ended up being the patient!
Peace and Love,
P.S. Highland Hospital, thank you for your kind treatment. In the Eye treatment section of the hospital, they placed me in a room with soothing music. They said it was the only room in the hospital with music. It did indeed help ease my pain when morphine didn't do a thang. Sun Ra taught me about music as therapy. Finally, like my brother, I have a killer instinct, but he executed his madness, writing stopped me from being a killer. mx
Under the Shadow of DeathBY THE MOST HONORABLE ELIJAH MUHAMMAD | LAST UPDATED: APR 2, 2012 - 3:17:06 PM
We, the Black lost-found of our people here in America live under the shadow of death by way of cowardly enemies. Every one of us—the cowardly enemies seek our deaths, one way or another.
Hundreds of Thousands March in 'Day of Rage' Against Israel
Around 1,000 people took to the streets of Columbus Circle to protest Israeli attacks in the Gaza Strip and call for an end to U.S. support to Israel.
America has been at war with North American Africans since we arrived as victims of kidnapping, mass rape, torture, terror and trauma. James Baldwin told me in a 1968 interview, "Nothing else happened here but us. For a black father to raise a black son in this environment is a miracle. I applaud the men who are able to do so. It's a wonder we all haven't gone stark raving mad."
The Quranic Concept of War1 JOSEPH C. MYERS
The universalism of Islam, in its all-embracing creed, is imposed on the be- lievers as a continuous process of warfare, psychological and political, if not strictly military. . . . The Jihad, accordingly, may be stated as a doctrine of a permanent state of war, not continuous fighting.”2
— Majid Khadduri
Political and military leaders are notoriously averse to theory, but if there is a the- orist about war who matters, it remains Carl von Clausewitz, whose Vom Kriege (On War) has shaped Western views about war since the middle of the nineteenth century.”3 Both points are likely true and problematic since we find ourselves en- gaged in war with people not solely imbued with western ideas and values or fol- lowers of western military theorists. The Hoover Institution’s Paul Sperry recently stated, “Four years into the war on terror, US intelligence officials tell me there are no baseline studies of the Muslim prophet Muhammad or his ideological or military doctrine found at either the CIA or Defense Intelligence Agency, or even the war colleges.”4
Would this be surprising? When it comes to warfighting military audiences tend to focus on the military and power aspects of warfare; the tangibles of terrain, enemy, weather, leadership, and troops; quantifiables such as the number of tanks and artillery tubes—the correlation of forces. Analysts steer toward the familiar rather than the unfamiliar; people tend to think in their comfort zones. The study of ideology or philosophy is often brushed aside, it’s not the “stuff of muddy boots;” it is more cerebral than physical and not action oriented. Planners do not assess the “cor- relation of ideas.” The practitioners are too busy.
Dr. Antulio Echevarria recently argued the US military does not have a doc- trine for war as much as it has a doctrine for operations and battles.5 The military has a deficit of strategic, and, one could add, philosophic thinking. In the war against Islamist terrorism, how many have heard of the Muslim Brotherhood’s “Project”?6 Is the political philosophy of Ayatollah Khomeini, who was in fact well-grounded in western political theory and rigorously rejected it, studied in our military schools? Are there any implications to his statement in 1981 that “Iran . . . is determined to propagate Islam to the whole world”?7
With respect to the war against the global jihad and its associated terror groups, individual terrorists, and clandestine adherents, one should ask if there is a unique method or attitude to their approach to war. Is there a philosophy, or treatise such as Clausewitz’s On War that attempts to form their thinking about war? Is there a docu- ment that can be reviewed and understood in such a manner that we may begin to think strategically about our opponent. There is one work that stands out from the many.
The Quranic Concept of War
The Quranic Concept of War, by Brigadier General S. K. Malik of the Paki- stani Army provides readers with unequalled insight. Originally published in Paki- stan in 1979, most available copies are found in India, or in small non-descript Muslim bookstores.8 One major point to ponder, when thinking about The Quranic Concept of War, is the title itself. The Quran is presumed to be the revealed word of God as spoken through his chosen prophet, Mohammed. According to Malik, the Quran places warfighting doctrine and its theory in a much different category than western thinkers are accustomed to, because it is not a theory of war derived by man, but of God. This is God’s warfighting principles and commandments revealed. Malik’s attempts to distill God’s doctrine for war through the examples of the Prophet. By contrast, the closest that Clausewitz comes to divine presentation is in his discussion of the trinity: the people, the state, and the military. In the Islamic con- text, the discussion of war is at the level of revealed truth and example, well above theory—God has no need to theorize. Malik notes, “As a complete Code of Life, the Holy Quran gives us a philosophy of war as well. . . . This divine philosophy is an in- tegral part of the total Quranic ideology.”9
In The Quranic Concept of War, Malik seeks to instruct readers in the uniquely important doctrinal aspects of Quranic warfare. The Quranic approach to war is “infinitely supreme and effective . . . [and] points towards the realization of universal peace and justice . . . and makes maximum allowance to its adversaries to co-operate [with Islam] in a combined search for a just and peaceful order.”10 For pur- poses of this review, the term “doctrine” refers to both religious and broad strategic approaches, not methods and procedures. Malik’s work is a treatise with historical, political, legalistic, and moralistic ramifications on Islamic warfare. It seemingly is without parallel in the western sense of warfare since the “Quran is a source of eter- nal guidance for mankind.”11
The approach is not new to Islamists and other jihad theorists fighting ac- cording to the “Method of Mohammed” or hadith. The lessons learned are recorded and form an important part of Quranic surah and jihadist’s scholarship.12 Islamic scholars both Muslim and non-Muslim will find much to debate in terms of Malik’s view of jihad doctrine and Quranic warfare. Malik’s work is essentially modern scholarship; although he does acknowledge the classical views of jihad in many respects.13
The preface by Allah Bukhsh K. Brohi, the former Pakistani ambassador to India, offers important insights into Malik’s exposition. In fact, Brohi’s 13-page preface lays the foundation for the books ten chapters. Malik places Quranic warfare in an academic context relative to that used by western theorists. He analyzes the causes and objects of war, as well as war’s nature and dimensions. He then turns at- tention to the ethics and strategy of warfare. Toward the end of the book he reviews the exercise of Quranic warfare based on the examples of the Prophet Mohammed’s military campaigns and concludes with summary observations. There are important jus en bellum and jus ad bellum implications in the author’s writings, as well as in his controversial ideas related to the means and objectives of war. It is these concepts that warrant the attention of planners and strategist.
Zia-Ul-Haq (1924-88), the former President of Pakistan and Pakistani Army Chief of Staff, opens the book by focusing on the concept of jihad within Islam and explaining it is not simply the domain of the military:
Jehad fi sabilallah is not the exclusive domain of the professional soldier, nor is it restricted to the application of military force alone.
This book brings out with simplicity, clarity and precision the Quranic philosophy on the application of military force within the context of the totality that is JEHAD. The professional soldier in a Muslim army, pursuing the goals of a Muslim state, cannot become ‘professional’ if in all his activities he does not take the ‘colour of Allah,’ The nonmilitary citizen of a Muslin state must, likewise, be aware of the kind of soldier that his country must produce and the only pattern of war that his country’s armed forces may wage.14
General Zia states that all Muslims play a role in jihad, a mainstream con- cept of the Quran, that jihad in terms of warfare is a collective responsibility of the Muslim ummah, and is not restricted to soldiers. General Zia emphasizes how the concept of Islamic military professionalism requires “godly character” in order to be fully achieved. Zia then endorses Malik’s thesis as the “only pattern of war,” or ap- proach to war that an Islamic state may wage.
Battling Counter-initiatory Forces
Brohi then defines jihad, “The most glorious word in the Vocabulary of Is- lam is Jehad, a word which is untranslatable in English but, broadly speaking, means ‘striving’, ‘struggling’, ‘trying’ to advance the Divine causes or purposes.” He intro- duces a somewhat cryptic concept when he explains man’s role in a “Quranic setting” as energetically combating forces of evil or what may be called, “counter-initiatory” forces which are at war with the harmony and the purpose of life on earth.16 For the true Muslin the harmony and purpose in life are only possible through man’s ultimate submission to God’s will, that all will come to know, recognize, and profess Moham- med as the Prophet of God. Man must recognize the last days and acknowledge tawhid, the oneness of God.17
Brohi recounts the classic dualisms of Islamic theology; that the world is a place of struggle between good and evil, between right and wrong, between Haq and Na-Haq (truth and untruth), and between halal and haram (legitimate and forbid- den). According to Brohi, it is the duty of man to opt for goodness and reject evil. Brohi appeals to the “greater jihad,” a post-classical jihad doctrine developed by the mystical Sufi order and other Shia scholars.18
Brohi places jihad in the context of communal if not imperial obligation; both controversial formulations:
When a believer sees that someone is trying to obstruct another believer from travel- ing the road that leads to God, spirit of Jehad requires that such a man who is impos- ing obstacles should be prevented from doing so and the obstacles placed by him should also be removed, so that mankind may be freely able to negotiate its own path that leads to Heaven.” To do otherwise, “by not striving to clear or straighten the path we [Muslims] become passive spectators of the counter-initiatory forces imposing a blockade in the way of those who mean to keep their faith with God.19
This viewpoint appears to reflect the classic, collective duty within jihad doctrine, to defend the Islamic community from threats—the concept of defensive ji- had. Brohi is saying much more than that; however, he is attempting to delineate the duty—the proactive duty—to clear the path for Islam. It is necessary not only to defend the individual believer if he is being hindered in his faith, but also to remove the obsta- cles of those counter-initiatory forces hindering his Islamic development. This begs the question of what is actually meant by the initiatory forces. The answer is clear to Brohi; the force of initiative is Islam and its Muslim members. “It is the duty of a be- liever to carry forward the Message of God and to bring it to notice of his fellow-men in handsome ways. But if someone attempts to obstruct him from doing so he is entitled as a matter of defense, to retaliate.”20
No Nation is Sovereign
The exegesis of the term jihad is often debated. Some apologists make clear that nowhere in the Quran does the term “Holy War” exist; that is true, but it is also irrelevant. War in Islam is either just or unjust and that justness depends on the ends of war. Brohi, and later Malik, make clear that the ends of war in Islam or jihad are to fulfill God’s divine purpose. Not only should that be a holy purpose, it must be a just war in order to be “Holy War.”23
The next dualism Brohi presents is that of Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb, the house of submission and the house of war. He describes the latter, as “perpetuat- ing defiance of the Lord.” While explaining that conditions for war in Islam are lim- ited (a constrained set of circumstances) he notes that “in Islam war is waged to establish supremacy of the Lord only when every other argument has failed to con- vince those who reject His will and work against the very purpose of the creation of mankind.”24 Brohi quotes the Quranic manuscript Surah, al-Tawba:
Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the reli- gion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.25
Acknowledging western critics who believe that Islam is in a state of per- petual struggle with the non-Islamic world, Brohi counters in a clearly dismissive tone by explaining that man is the slave to God, and defying God is treason under Is- lamic law. Those who defy God should be removed from humanity like a cancerous growth. Islam requires believers “to invite non-believers to the fold of Islam” by us- ing “persuasion” and “beautiful methods.” He continues, “the first duty” of a Muslim
is dawa, a proclamation to conversion by “handsome ways.” It is only after refusing dawa and the invitation to Islam that “believers have no option but in self-defense to wage a war against those threatening aggression.”
Finally, Brohi examines the concept of the ummah and the international system. “The idea of Ummah of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, is incapable of be- ing realized within the framework of territorial states.” This is a consistent view that underpins many works on the concept of the Islamic state.27 For Muslims, the ummah is a transcendent religious and cultural society united and reflecting the unity (tawhid) of Islam; the idea of one God, indivisible, one community, one belief, and one duty to live and become godly. According to the Prophet, “Ummah participates in this heritage by a set pattern of thought, belief and practice . . . and supplies the spiritual principle of integration of mankind—a principle which is supra-national, supra-racial, supra-linguistic and supra-territorial.”28
With respect to the “law of war and peace in Islam” Brohi writes it “is as old as the Quran itself. . . . ” In his analysis of the law of nations and their international dealings, he emphasizes that in “Islamic international law this conduct [war and peace] is, strictly speaking, regulated between Muslims and non-Muslims, there be- ing, from Islamic perspective, no other nation. . . . ” In other words, war is between Muslims and non-Muslims and not in actuality between states. It is transnational. He adds, “In Islam, of course, no nation is sovereign since Allah alone is the only sover- eign in Whom all authority vests.”29 Here Brohi is echoing what Islamic scholars such as Majid Khadduri have described as the “dualism of the universal religion and universal state that is Islam.”30
The Divine Philosophy on War
General Malik begins by categorizing human beings into three archetypes: those who fear Allah and profess the Faith; those who reject the Faith; and those who profess, but are treacherous in their hearts. Examples of the Prophet and the instruc- tions to him by God in his early campaigns should be studied to fully understand these three examples in practice. The author highlights the fact that the “divine phi- losophy on war” was revealed gradually over a 12 year period, its earliest guidance dealing with the causes and objects of war, while later guidance focused on Quranic strategy, the conduct of war, and the ethical dimensions of warfare.31
In Chapter Three, Malik reviews several key thoughts espoused by western scholars related to the causes of war. He examines the ideologies of Lenin, Geoffery Blainey, Quincy Wright, and Frederick H. Hartman each of whom spoke about war in a historical or material context with respect to the nature of the state system. Malik finds these explanations wanting and turns to the Quran for explanation, “war could only be waged for the sake of justice, truth, law, and preservation of human society. . . . The cen- tral theme behind the causes of war . . . [in] the Holy Quran, was the cause of Allah.”32
Malik argues that the pagan Koraish tribe had no reason to prohibit Muslim worship, since the Muslims did not impede their form of worship. This historical ex- ample helps to further define the concept that “tumult and oppression is worse than slaughter” and as the Quran repeats, “graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent ac- cess to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members.” Malik also notes the Quran distinguishes those who fight “in the cause of Allah and those who reject Faith and fight in the cause of evil.”35 In terms of Quranic just war theory, war must be waged “only to fight the forces of tyranny and oppression.”36
Challenging Clausewitz’s notion that “policy” provides the context and boundary of war; Malik says it is the reverse, “‘war’ forced policy to define and de- termine its own parameters” and since that discussion focuses on parochial issues such as national interests, and the vagaries of state to state relations it is a lesser per- spective. In the divine context of the Quran war orients on the spread of “justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere.” According to the author war is to be fought aggressively, slaughter is not the worst evil. In the course of war every oppor- tunity for peace should be pursued and reciprocated. That is every remonstrance of peace by the enemies of Islam, but only as prescribed by the Quran’s “clear-cut phi- losophy and methodology” for preserving peace.37
Understanding the context in which the Quran describes and defines “jus- tice and peace” is important. Malik refers the reader to the battle of Badr to elucidate these principles. There is peace with those pagans who cease hostilities, and war con- tinues with those who refuse. He cites the following surah, “as long as these stand true to you, stand ye true to them, for Allah doth love the righteous.”38 Referring to the precedent setting Hodaibayya treaty in the ninth year of the hijra, or pilgrimages to Mecca, Malik outlines how Allah and the Prophet abrogated those treaties with the pagan Meccans.
As the Prophet gained control of Mecca he decreed that non-believers could assemble or watch over the Sacred Mosque. He later consolidated power over Arabia and many who had not yet accepted Islam, “including Christians and Jew, [they] were given the option to choose between war and submission.” These non-believers were re- quired to pay a poll-tax or jizya and accept the status of dhimmitude [servitude to Islam] in order to continue practicing their faith. According to Malik the taxes were merely symbolic and insignificant. In summarizing this relationship the author states, “the ob- ject of war is to obtain conditions of peace, justice, and faith. To do so it is essential to de- stroy the forces of oppression and persecution.”42 This view is in keeping with that outlined by Khadduri, “The jihad, it will be recalled, regarded war as Islam’s instrument to transform the dar al-harb into dar al-Islam . . . in Islamic legal theory, the ultimate ob- jective of Islam is not war per se, but the ultimate establishment of peace.”43
The Nature of War
Malik argues that the “nature and dimension of war” is the greatest single characteristic of Quranic warfare and distinguishes it from all other doctrines. He ac- knowledges Clausewitz’s contribution to the understanding of warfare in its moral and spiritual context. The moral forces of war, as Clausewitz declared, are perhaps the most important aspects in war. Reiterating that Muslims are required to wage war “with the spirit of religious duty and obligation,” the author makes it clear that in re- turn for fighting in the way of Allah, divine, angelic assistance will be rendered to ji- had warriors and armies. At this point The Quranic Concept of War moves beyond the metaphysical to the supernatural element, unlike anything found in western doc- trine. Malik highlights the fact that divine assistance requires “divine standards” on the part of the warrior mujahideen for the promise of Allah’s aid to be met.44
The author then builds upon the jihad warrior’s role in the realms of divine cause, purpose, and support, to argue that in order for the Muslim warrior to be un- matched, to be the bravest and the most fearless; he can only do so through the correct spiritual preparation, beginning with total submission to God’s will. The Quran re- veals that the moral forces are the “real issues involved in the planning and conduct of war.”45 Malik quotes the Quran: “Fighting is prescribed for you . . . and ye dislike a thing which is good for you and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not.”
The Quran instructs the jihad warrior “to fight . . . with total devotion and never contemplate a flight from the battlefield for fear of death.” The jihad warrior, who dies in the way of Allah, does not really die but lives on in heaven. Malik empha- sizes this in several Quranic verses. “Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. . . . Nay, they live finding their sustenance in the Presence of the Lord.” Malik also notes that “Not equal are those Believers . . . Allah has granted a higher grade to those who strive and fight . . . .”46
Malik, like Brohi, acknowledges critics who say that Islam has been “spread by the sword,” but he responds that Islam is spread through restraint in war and in “the use of force [that] have no parallel.” He then argues that restraint in warfare is a “two- sided affair.” Where the enemy (not defined) fails to exercise restraints and commits “excesses” (not defined) then “the very injunction of preserving and promoting peace and justice demands the use of limited force . . . . Islam permits the use of the sword for such purpose.”49 Since Malik is speaking in the context of active war and response to the “excesses of war” it is unclear what he means by “limited force” or response.
The author expands on the earlier ideas that moral and spiritual forces are pre- dominate in war. He contrasts Islamic strategic approaches with western theories of war- fare oriented toward the application of force, primarily in the military domain, as opposed to Islam where the focus is on a broader application of power. Power in Malik’s context is the power of jihad, which is total, both in the conduct of total war and in its supporting strategy; referred to as “total or grand strategy.” Malik provides the follow- ing definition, “Jehad is a continuous and never-ending struggle waged on all fronts in- cluding political, economic, social, psychological, domestic, moral and spiritual to attain the objectives of policy.”50 The power of jihad brings with it the power of God.
The Quranic concept of strategy is therefore divine theory. The examples and lessons to be derived from it may be found in the study of the classics, inspired by such events as the battles of the Prophet, e.g., Badr, Khandaq, Tabuk, and Hudaibiyya. Malik again references the divine assistance of Allah and the aid of angelic hosts. He refers to the battles of Hunain and Ohad as instances where seeming defeat was re- versed and Allah “sent down Tranquility into the hearts of believers, that they may add Faith to their Faith.” Malik argues that divine providence steels the jihadi in war, “strengthens the hearts of Believers.” Calmness of faith, “assurance, hope, and tran- quility” in the face of danger is the divine standard.51
Strike Terror into their Hearts
Malik uses examples to demonstrate that Allah will strike “terror into the hearts of Unbelievers.”52 At this point he begins to develop his most controversial and conjectural Quranic theory related to warfare—the role of terror. Readers need to un- derstand that the author is thinking and writing in strategic terms, not in the vernacular of battles or engagements. Malik continues, “when God wishes to impose His will on his enemies, He chooses to do so by casting terror into their hearts.”53 He cites another verse, “against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts) of the enemies of Allah . . . .” Malik’s strategic synthesis is specific: “the Quranic military strategy thus enjoins us to prepare ourselves for war to the utmost in order to strike terror into the hearts of the enemies, known or hidden, while guarding ourselves from being terror-stricken by the en- emy.”54 Terror is an effect; the end-state.
When examining the theme of the preparatory stage of war, Malik talks of the “war of preparation being waged . . . in peace,” meaning that peacetime prepara- tory activities are in fact part of any war and “vastly more important than the active war.” This statement should not be taken lightly, it essentially means that Islam is in a perpetual state of war while peace can only be defined as the absence of active war. Malik argues that peace-time training efforts should be oriented on the active war(s) to come, in order to develop the Quranic and divine “Will” in the mujahid. When ar- mies and soldiers find limited physical resources they should continue and empha- size the development of the “spiritual resources” as these are complimentary factors and create synergy for future military action.
Malik’s most controversial dictum is summarized in the following manner: in war, “the point where the means and the end meet” is in terror. He formulates terror as an objective principal of war; once terror is achieved the enemy reaches his culminating point. “Terror is not a means of imposing decision upon the enemy; it is the decision we wish to impose . . . .” Malik’s divine principal of Islamic warfare may be restated as “strike terror; never feel terror.” The ultimate objective of this form of warfare “revolves around the human heart, [the enemies] soul, spirit, and Faith.”56 Terror “can be instilled only if the opponent’s Faith is destroyed . . . . It is essential in the ultimate analysis, to dis- locate [the enemies] Faith.” Those who are firm in their religious conviction are immune to terror, “a weak Faith offers inroads to terror.” Therefore, as part of preparations for ji- had, actions will be oriented on weakening the non-Islamic’s “Faith,” while strengthen- ing the Islamic’s. What that weakening or “dislocation” entails in practice remains ambiguous. Malik concludes, “Psychological dislocation is temporary; spiritual dislo- cation is permanent.” The soul of man can only be touched by terror.5
Evaluation of The Quranic Concept of War
While the extent and reach of Malik’s thesis cannot be confirmed in the Is- lamic world neither can it be discounted. Though controversial, his citations are accu- rately drawn from Islamic sources and consistent with classical Islamic jurisprudence.59 As Malik notes, “Quranic military thought is an integral and inseparable part of the total Quranic message.”60 Policy planners and strategists striving to understand the nature of the “Long War” should consider Malik’s writings in that light.
Malik makes clear that the Quran provides the doctrine, guidance, and ex- amples for the conduct of Quranic or Islamic warfare. “It gives a strategy of war that penetrates deep down to destroy the opponents’ faith and render his physical and mental faculties totally ineffective.”61 Malik’s thesis focuses on the fact that the pri- mary reason for studying the Quran is to gain a greater understanding of these con- cepts and insights. The Prophet Mohammed, as the Quran attests, changed the intent and objective of war—raising the sphere of war to a Godly plane and purpose; the global proclamation and spread of Islam. This obviously rejects the Clausewitizian politics and policy dyad: that war is simply policy of the state.
Quranic warfare is “just war.” It is jus en bellum and jus ad bellum if fought “in the way of Allah” for divine purposes and the ends of Islam. This contradicts the western philosophy of just war theory. Another important connotation is that jihad is a continuum, across peace and war. It is a constant and covers the spectrum from grand strategy to tactical; collective to the individual; from the preparatory to the ex- ecution phases of war.
Malik highlights the fact that the preservation of life is not the ultimate end or greatest good in Quranic warfare. Ending “tumult and oppression,” achieving the war aims of Islam through jihad is the desired end. Dying in this cause brings direct re- ward in heaven for the mujahid, sacrifice is sacred. It naturally follows that death is not feared in Quranic warfare; indeed, “tranquility” invites God’s divine aid and assis- tance. The “Base” of the Quranic military strategy is spiritual preparation and “guard- ing ourselves against terror.”62 Readers may surmise that the training camps of al Qaeda (The Base) were designed as much for spiritual preparation as military. One needs only to recall the example of Mohammed Atta’s “last night” preparations.63
The battleground of Quranic war is the human soul—it is religious warfare. The object of war is to dislocate and destroy the [religious] “Faith” of the enemy. These principals are consistent with objectives of al Qaeda and other radical Islamic organizations. “Wars in the theory of Islam are . . . to advance God’s purposes on earth, and invariably they are defensive in character.”64 Peace treaties in theory are temporary, pragmatic protocols. This treatise acknowledges Islam’s manifest des- tiny and the approach to achieving it.
The book’s metaphysical content borders on the supernatural and renders “assured expectations” that cannot be evaluated or tested in the arena of military ex- perience. Incorporating “divine intervention” into military campaigns, while possi- bly advantageous, cannot be calculated as an overt force multiplier. Critics may also point to the ahistorical aspect of Malik’s thesis; that Islam is in a state of constant struggle with the non-Islamic world. There are examples of Muslim armies serving side by side with Christian armies in combat and campaigns are numerous, with Iraq being but a recent example.65
Malik’s appraisal of the Quran as a source of divine revelation for victory in war can likewise be criticized by historical example. Were it fully true and operationalized then the 1,400 years of Islamic military history might demonstrate something beyond its present state. War and peace in Islam has ebbed and flowed as has the conduct of war across all civilizations, ancient and modern. Islam as an inde- pendent military force has been in recession since 1492, although the latest jihadist’s threat of terror against the international system is, at least in part, a possible reaction to this long recession. Malik’s thesis essentially recognizes this historical pattern; in- deed, Malik’s book may be an attempt to reverse this trend. The events of 9/11 may be seen as a validation of Malik’s thesis regarding the spiritual preparation and the use of terror. The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were intended to seed “respect” (fear) in the minds of Islam’s enemies. These acts were not only di- rected at Western non-believers, but also the Muslim leaders who “profess the faith but are treacherous in their hearts” (allies and supporters of the United States). The barbarity of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and others in Iraq reflect a focus on extreme ter- ror designed to wilt the will of Islam’s enemies.
Malik and Brohi both emphasize the defensive nature of jihad in Islam, but this position appears to be more a defense of a manifest destiny inevitably resulting in conflict. In their rendering of jihad both, not surprisingly, owe an intellectual debt to the Pakistani Islamist theorist, Abu al-Ala al-Mawdudi. Al-Mawdudi is an impor- tant intellectual precursor to the Muslim Brotherhood, Sayyid Qutb, and other mod- ern Islamic revivalists. As al-Mawdudi notes, “Islamic jihad is both offensive and defensive” oriented on liberating man from humanistic tyranny.66
The author’s most controversial and, perhaps, most noteworthy assertion, is the distinction of “terror” as an ends rather than as a means to an end. The soul can only be touched by terror. Malik’s divine principal of war may be summarized in the dictum “strike terror; never feel terror.” Yet, he does not describe any specific method of deliv- ering terror into the heart of Islam’s enemies. His view of terror seems to conflict with his earlier, limited, discussion of the concept of restraint in warfare and what actually constitutes “excesses” on the part of an enemy. It also conflicts with the character and nature of response that the author says is demanded. Malik leaves many of these perti- nent issues undefined under a veneer of legitimating theory.
1. Brigadier S. K. Malik, The Quranic Concept of War (Lahore, Pakistan: Associated Printers, 1979). Quranic War or Quranic Warfare refers to Malik’s treatment in his book.
2. Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam (Baltimore, Md.: John Hopkins Press, 1955), p. 64.
3. R. D. Hooker, “Beyond Vom Kriege: The Character and Conduct of Modern War,” Parameters, 35 (Summer 2005), 4.
4. Paul Sperry, “The Pentagon Breaks the Islam Taboo,” FrontPage Magazine, 14 December 2005, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=20539.
5. Antulio Echevarria, Towards an American Way of War (Carlisle, Pa.: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, March 2004).
6. Patrick Poole, “The Muslim Brotherhood ‘Project,’” FrontPage Magazine, 11 May 2006, http:// www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=22415.
7. Farhand Rajaee, Islamic Values and World View: Khomeyni on Man the State and International Poli- tics,” (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1983), p 71.
8. Irfan Yusuf, “Theories on Islamic Books You Wouldn’t Read About,” Canberra Times, 21 July 2005, http://canberra.yourguide.com.au/detail.asp?class=your%20say&subclass=general&category=editorial%20 opinion&story_id=410105&y=2005&m=7.
9. Malik, pp. I-ii.
10. Ibid., p. 1.
11. Ibid., pp. I-ii.
12. See for example the discussion by Dr. Mary R. Habeck, “Jihadist Strategies in the War on Terrorism,”
The Heritage Foundation, 8 November 2004, http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl855.cfm. 13. David Cook, Understanding Jihad, (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2005). There is approxi- mately 1,400 years of jihad scholarship beginning with Mohammed and his military campaigns. Classical ap- proaches to jihad as described by Mohammed’s successors, Abu Bakr for example, and the challenges
presented by the struggles of succession to Mohammed. 14. Malik “Forward.”
15. Ibid., “Preface,” p. I.
16. Ibid., p. I. Note the Christian concept of the Trinity contained in the Nicene Creed is considered poly- theistic according to Islam. The Trinity is not tawhid.
17. John Esposito, Islam, the Straight Path (3d ed.; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998), pp. 12-14, 89.
18. Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 72; Khadduri, pp. 65, 70-72; Cook, Understanding Jihad, pp. 35-39.
19. Brohi, “Preface,” p. ii.
20. Ibid., p. iii.
21. Ibid., p. iii.
22. Cook, pp. 95-96. Cook places these concepts of jihad doctrine in the lineage of contemporary and
23. The indexed term for jihad is redirected to the term “Holy War” in this classic book of Islamic law or
sharia by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveller, ed. and trans. Nuh Ha Mim Keller (Beltsville, Md.: Amana Publication, 1997).
24. Malik, “Preface,” p. v.
25. Ibid., p. vii.
26. Cook, p. 107; Christoper Henzel, “The Origins of al Qaeda’s Ideology: Implications for US Strat-
egy,” Parameters, 35 (Spring 2005), 69-80.
27. Ishtiaq Ahmed, The Concept of an Islamic State: An Analysis of the Ideological Controversy in Paki-
stan (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987).
29. Ibid., p. x.
30. Khadduri, p. 63.
31. Malik, p. 6.
32. Ibid., p. 20.
33. Ibid., pp. 20-21. (Baqara: 190).
34. Malik, p. 11.
35. Ibid., p. 22. (Baqara: 217) and (Nissaa: 76).
36. Ibid., p. 23.
37. Ibid., p. 29.
38. Malik, p. 29. (Tauba: 7).
39. Ibid., p. 31.
40. Khadduri, p. 212. Jurists disagree on the allowable duration of treaties, the operative concept is that
the dar al-Harb must be reduced to dar al-Islam over time. 41. Malik, p. 27.
42. Ibid., pp. 33-34.
43. Khadduri, p. 141.
44. Malik, p. 40
45. Ibid., pp. 37-38. (Baqara: 216).
46. Ibid., pp. 42-44. (Al-I-Imran: 169-70) and (Nissa: 95). 47. Ibid., pp. 42-44.
48. Cook, pp. 77, 124. 49. Malik, p. 49.
50. Ibid., p. 54.
51. Ibid., p. 57.
52. Malik, p. 57. 53. Ibid., p. 57.
54. Ibid., p. 58.
55. Ibid., p. 58.
56. Ibid., pp. 58-59. 57. Ibid., p. 60.
58. Ibid., p. 144.
59. Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), pp. 44-51, 128.
60. Malik, p. 3.
61. Ibid., p. 146.
62. Ibid., p.58.
63. “In Hijacker’s Bags, a Call to Planning, Prayer and Death,” Washington Post, 28 September 2001. 64. Malik, “Preface,” p. iii.
65. Four notable examples are the Crimean War where French, British and Ottoman Forces allied against the Russians; Fuad Pasha of the Ottoman Army served as a coalition partner with French Army during the 1860 Rebellion in Syria; more recently Muslim Arab and Kabyle soldiers served in the Harkis of the French Army in the French-Algerian War; and, of course, today in Iraq. Malik would address some of these events as al- liances of convenience serving Islam’s interests in accord with the Quran and Sharia Law, others as takfir or treason.
66. Cook, pp. 99-103. Peters, p. 130.
The Reviewer: Lieutenant Colonel Joseph C. Myers is the Senior Army Advisor to the Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. A graduate of the US Military Academy he holds a Master of Arts from Tulane University. In 2004 he com- pleted a Senior Army Fellowship at the George C. Marshall European Center for Se- curity Studies. Previous assignments include Army Section Chief, US Military Group, Argentina. He also served as Chief of the South America Division and Senior Military Analyst for Colombia at the Defense Intelligence Agency.
Winter 2006-07 121
The Hon. Marcus Mosiah Garvey
(August 17, 1887 - June 10, 1940)
The time has come for the Blackman to forget and cast behind
him his hero worship and adoration of other races, and to start
out immediately to create and emulate heroes of his own. We must
canonize our own martyrs and elevate to positions of fame and honor
Black men and women who have made their distinct contributions to
our racial history.
Sojourner Truth is worthy of sainthood alongside of Joan of Arc.
Crispus Attuck and George William Gordon are entitled to the halo
of martyrdom with no less glory than that of the martyrs of any
other race. Jacques Deselines' and Moshesh's brilliancy as
soldiers and statesmen outshone that of a Cromwell, Napoleon, or
Washington: hence they are entitled to the highest place as heroes
Africa has produced countless numbers of men and women, in war and
in peace, whose lustre and bravery outshines that of any other
people. Then why not see good and perfection in ourselves? We
must inspire a literature and promulgate a doctrine of our own
without any apologies to the powers that be. The right is the
Blackman's and Africa's. Let contrary sentiments and cross
opinions go to the winds. Oppositions to Race Independence is the
weapon of the enemy to defeat the hopes of an unfortunate people.
We are entitled to our own opinions and not obligated to or bound
by the opinions of others. If others laugh at you return the
laughter to them; if they mimic you return the compliment with
equal force. They have no more right to dishonor, disrespect or
disregard your feelings and manhood than you have in dealing with
them. Honor them when they honor you; disregard them when they
vilely treat you. Their arrogance is but skin deep and an
assumption that has no foundation in morals or in Law.
They have sprung from the same family tree of obscurity as
we have; their history is as rude in its primitiveness as ours,
their ancestors ran wild and naked, lived in caves and in branches
of trees like monkeys as ours; they made sacrifices, ate the flesh
of their own dead and the raw meat of wild beasts for centuries
even as they accuse us of doing. Their cannibalism was more
prolonged than ours; when we were embracing the Arts and Sciences
on the banks of the Nile, their ancestors were still drinking
human blood and eating out of the skulls of their conquered dead.
When our civilization had reached the noon-day of progress, they
were still running naked and sleeping in holes and caves with
rats, bats, and other insects and animals. After we had already
unfathomed the mystery of the Stars and reduced the Heavenly
Constellations to minute and regular calculus they were still
backwoodsmen, living in ignorance and blatant darkness.
The world today is indebted to us for the benefits of civilization.
They stole our Arts and Sciences from Africa. Then why should we
be ashamed of ourselves? Their modern improvements are but
duplicates of a grander civilization that we reflected thousands of
years ago; without the advantage of what is buried and still
hidden, to be resurrected and reintroduced by the intelligence of
our generation and our posterity.
Why should we be discouraged because somebody laughs at us today?
Who can tell what tomorrow will bring forth? Did they not laugh at
Moses, Christ, and Mohammed? Was there not a CARTHAGE, GREECE
and ROME? We see and have changes everyday; so plan, work, be
steadfast and do not be dismayed. As the Jew is held together by
his religion, the white races by the assumption and the unwritten
law of superiority, and the Mongolian by the precious tie of blood;
so likewise the Blackman must be UNITED in one grand RACIAL
HIERARCHY. Our union must know no climate, boundary or
BLACK MEN THE WORLD OVER MUST PRACTICE ONE FAITH,
THAT OF CONFIDENCE IN THEMSELVES, WITH: *ONE CAUSE.
Let no religious scruples, no political machination divide us,
but let us hold together under all climates and in every country;
making among ourselves a RACIAL EMPIRE upon which, "The Sun shall
Let no voice but your own speak to you from the depths; let no
influence but your own rouse you in time of peace and time of war.
Hear all but attend only to that which concerns you, your
allegiance shall be to your Race, then to your family and your
Country. Remember always that the Jew in his political and
economic urge is always first a Jew, the white is first a white man
under all circumstances; and you can do no less than being first
and always a Blackman; then all else will take care of itself.
Let no one inoculate you with evil doctrines to suit their
conveniences. There's no humanity before that which starts with
yourself, "CHARITY BEGINS AT HOME." First to thyself be true and
thou canst not then be false to any man.
NATURE first made us what we are and then out of our own
creative genius we make ourselves what we want to be. Follow
always that GREAT LAW. Let the SKY be your limit, and Eternity our
Measurement. There's no height to which we cannot climb by using
the active intelligence of our own mind. Mind creates, and as much
as we desire in NATURE, we can have through the creation of our own
minds. Being at present the scientifically weaker Race, you shall
treat others only as they treat you, but in your homes and
everywhere possible you must teach the higher development of
science to your children; and be sure to develop a RACE of
SCIENTISTS par excellence, for in Science and NATIONALISM lie our
only hope to withstand the evil designs of modern materialism.
Never forget your Cause. REMEMBER! We live, work and plan for
the establishment of a great and binding RACIAL HIERARCHY;
the founding of a RACIAL EMPIRE whose only natural, spiritual
and political limits shall be: LIBERTY FOR AFRICANS, AT HOME
By Soraya Sepahpour-Ulrich
The framers of the Constitution recognized such dangers when they carefully subordinated the military to civilian authority and attempted to limit the power of the President to initiate war.Gregory Foster, a former Army officer and West Point graduate who now teaches national security studies at the National Defense University in Washington said that the principle of civilian control of the military—an early building block of American democracy- has been reversed and become the civilian subjugation to the military.
Ankh Marketing Presents
THE FREEDOM ARCHIVES BENEFIT CONCERT
Kev Choice, Jennifer Johns, Jahi As PE 2.0, Sellassie, DJ Leydis
Doors: 8:00 pm / Show: 9:00 pm
$15 Early Bird - $25 DOS
THIS EVENT IS ALL AGES
Under 21 must buy $5 drink ticket at the door.
The Crisis in Black Homeownership
How the recession turned owners into renters and obliterated black American wealth.In 2005, three years before the Great Recession, the median black household had a net worth of $12,124. Yes, this was far behind the median white household—which had a net worth of $134,992—but it was a huge improvement from previous decades, in which housing discrimination made wealth accumulation difficult (if not impossible) for the large majority of African-American families.
© ’14 Mumia Abu-JamalColumn written, August 11, 2014
Russia signs 30-year gas deal with China