Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel


Embed this content in your HTML

Search

Report adult content:

click to rate:

Account: (login)

More Channels


Showcase


Channel Catalog


Channel Description:

A journal dedicated to truth, freedom of speech and radical spiritual consciousness. Our mission is the liberation of men and women from oppression, violence and abuse of any kind, interpersonal, political, religious, economic, psychosexual. We believe as Fidel Castro said, "The weapon of today is not guns but consciousness."

older | 1 | .... | 58 | 59 | (Page 60) | 61 | 62 | .... | 168 | newer

    0 0


    Marvin X, the man who gave up domestic violence some thirty years ago and since then has  championed equality of the genders and the liberation of women from patriarchal domination (Mythology of Pussy and Dick, a male/female dialogue, as opposed to Vagina Monologue), had to spend the last two days in Oakland's Highland Hospital nursing a severe eye injury from a blow to his left eye by his female friend who was arrested and jailed for hitting the poet with a powerful blow to his eye, after she refused to leave his bedroom.

    A shoving match began but ended quickly when the poet suffered a straight hit to his left eye. "I felt like Muhammad Ali hit me. It hurt immediately and even morphine didn't stop the pain."

    In all my years as a teenager fighting on the street, I'd never suffered a blow to the eye. In my youth, I used to gang fight, but my objective was to always get the first punch in--they call it the sucker punch. Obviously, in this situation, I was not trying to hurt the woman, just tried to shove her out my room.
    Trust me, I had the strength and energy to physically handle her. I was trying to be a nice old colored man, for I have said one must decide whether you want to kill the people or heal the people. I want to heal. I don't want to go down saying I destroyed the people I was supposed to be helping and healing. I don't want to go out like my friend Huey Newton, killed by the very youth he was trying to save.

    My brother Ali (and sister Debbie) came over when I got home from the hospital. They were there when the police arrived. My brother said he had been hit in the eye many times in street fights. He said you just get drunk and get over it. As per what he would do in my situation, he said the woman would be dead, straight up. Of course my brother spent most of his life in prison as a result of violence. He was in prison along with George Jackson, Eldridge Cleaver, Sundiata Tate, David Johnson, Kumasi, Alprintis Bunchy Carter, et al., 

    I and my family (there are nine siblings) are happy he has given up violence and just lives in his apartment enjoying solitude. He is a year older than I, 71. He got drunk at my 65th birthday party in Berkeley, and has not had a drink since. We are so proud of him. I was just happy he was present at my birthday party, I didn't give a damn about his getting drunk, but apparently it shamed him into sobriety. Thank God! or the Higher Power since my brother is an atheist. 

    Like so many brothers, he spent his life in the California Department of Corrections, from Juvenile Hall and California Youth Authority to San Quentin, Soledad, Folsom, etc. When people ask me about getting involved in the prison movement, I laugh. My whole life has been impacted by my brother in the CDC. He was never there as my older brother. I missed him and loved him. A young sister Roxane has a poem called Federal Offense on the pain she felt as a result of her brother in the criminal justice system. 

    Marvin X Knew He was severely wounded

    The poet knew he was badly wounded so immediately after the fight he departed to the hospital. Oakland police interviewed him at the hospital but he refused to press charges. Before leaving his house, he told the woman not be there when he returned. After spending the night in the hospital, when he returned the next day from the hospital, she was still at the house, although she had taken her two children away.

    Marvin X again asked her to leave, but she refused and called 911. When officers arrived and saw his condition, the lady was immediately arrested, after Marvin X reluctantly consented to the arrest. "I didn't want her jailed, I only wanted her to leave my house, but the officers said I had to press charges, so I did. The officer in charge, a female, said abuse of men by women is totally unacceptable, and we are going to press charges against her to the fullest extent of the law." The officer read the hospital report that said Marvin may lose use of his left eye.

    There were no visible injuries to the woman. "I long ago stopped fighting women, so I did not try to hurt her, only asked her to leave my bedroom and go into the living room with her children. At this stage in my life, I consider myself a liberator of women, not their oppressor. I have learned in my 70 years that physical, verbal and emotional violence is to no avail--eventually the love is drained from the hour glass and the thrill is gone."

    People who know me know I am a very patient person, even though I am full of poetic passion. I told my lady friend who suffers mental health issues (don't we all?) that I must be patient with my patients. And I tried to patient with her and her children, naturally the children suffer mental illness as well. How could they not have feeling of trauma, abandonment and emotional abuse. Fathers, if you don't call your children, you are guilty of child abuse, a billboard said when I was a dope fiend in the Tenderloin of San Francisco. I have done as the 12 Step model says, make amends to those you have harmed, and I have been successful, especially with my children and their mothers. My children and their mothers have forgiven me and today I have the very best relations with my children and their mothers. Allah, God, is Great. Praise to the Ancestors.

    Amiri Baraka said if you are patient too long, you become the patient!"

    I am truly sad at the state of male/female relations today, and I know there must be a revolutionary change in our behavior. I have tried to be an example of such, but shit happens and it is what it is.

    Right now I am healing from my injuries and hope my vision is not permanently marred. As I said earlier, I did not want the sister jailed, instead,  I suggest long term mental health treatment and education which she lacks and many young and older women lack as well. The mental health and education that is needed is called womanhood and manhood training, or rites of passage.

    The Nation of Islam had FOI (Fruit of Islam, manhood rites for men and MGT for women, womanhood rites for women--we can either use such models or go to Africa for manhood and womanhood rites of passage as described in Jomo Kenyatta's ethnography Facing Mt. Kenya, but our children cannot continue in abysmal ignorance of common sense knowledge of essential gender wisdom.

    In talking with the King of the Yoruba's at the African Village in Sheldon, South Carolina, the young king or Oba said as a child he was taken from the women at age seven and endured manhood training. And the women endured the same. This is not a joking matter. Sadly, whenever I asked my lady friend about womanhood training, she had no knowledge of such. Yet she complained many times that her mother was too ignorant to teach her anything about womanhood, after all, she confessed, her grandmother was ignorant as well.

    Thus we have generations and generations of ignorance. My lady friend confessed she was ignorant of her body even though she was a mother of three, two daughters and a son. In her mental illness, she was simply ignorant of her body and in fear and terror of it. We wonder how many young women are in a similar state and condition. We are so presumptuous about our people's awareness of simple things. We have no understanding of their lack of simple things or common sense issues. No amount of money will solve such issues of abysmal ignorance.

    We must simply spread consciouness throughout the land as we propose with our 27 City Tour in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Black Arts Movement. This must not only be a celebration but a manhood and womanhood rites of passage to usher the next generation into North African cultural consciousness. The young North American men and women need help in solving their sexual identity crisis that is the natural and normal process of maturity. When such is absent, as the great Joseph Campbell taught us, we see the result in the daily papers, stories of youth gone mad.

    In my lady's case, she said abysmal ignorance was the norm in her family. She told me repeatedly  she learned nothing from her mother about womanhood training since her mother was ignorant and mentally ill as well. I can tell you I tried to help but mental health issues that derive from oppression will not be solved overnight.

    Finally, don't think I was walking on solid mental health ground. There were mental health issues in my family as well. In truth, I know of no families who have a clean bill of health. My mother had a mental break down. My son committed suicide. So I am grieving 24/7 at the death of my son and thus my eternal concern with such matters. This is not a Miller Lite matter. I shall deal with such matter until I depart this earth since I clearly understand the relationship between mental illness and oppression.

    In my personal case, I tried to be patient but, as Amiri Baraka, I ended up being the patient!

    Peace and Love,
    Marvin X
    Highland Hospital
    Oakland
    8/9/14

    P.S. Highland Hospital, thank you for your kind treatment. In the Eye treatment section of the hospital, they placed me in a room with soothing music. They said it was the only room in the hospital with music. It did indeed  help ease my pain when morphine didn't do a thang. Sun Ra taught me about music as therapy. Finally, like my brother, I have a killer instinct, but he executed his madness, writing stopped me from being a killer. mx

    0 0

    Iyelli Ichile: Resigned.
    Iyelli Ichile: Resigned.
    Iyelli Ichile: Resigned.GALLERY: Temple prof shocks students by resigning
    IN YET ANOTHER blow to Temple University's African American Studies Department, another professor, Iyelli Ichile, has suddenly resigned - three weeks before the start of the new school year.
    Ichile, who taught African-American studies and served as the undergraduate chairwoman, resigned Monday, citing family reasons, according to department chairman Molefi Asante.
    Classes at Temple are set to begin Aug. 25.
    The department was the target of protests last spring over the firing of professor Anthony Monteiro.
    Contacted by telephone, Ichile declined to comment.
    In an email to students and faculty Tuesday, Asante described Ichile as "one of our most active and valued faculty members.
    "Of course, we were stunned and broken hearted; however, we must wish her well and regroup and move forward with the work to be done for the next year."
    Asante, who did not respond to an email request for comment, wrote that Ichile and her fiance both found jobs at Florida A&M University "and will be moving there immediately."
    Temple student leader Paul Cange, who led some of the protests over Monteiro's dismissal, said students were shocked to learn Ichile is leaving.
    "She was so important in the department, and she was well-liked," Cange said.
    He said he had registered for his first class with her in the upcoming semester.
    As undergraduate chairwoman, Ichile helped students who majored and minored in African-American studies stay on track with their classes.
    In an email, Cange wrote: "As a student in the African American Studies Department, I am very confused as to what is happening in my department, [four] professors are gone from last semester and not one has been replaced.
    "And I feel that the university administration, especially the provost, should step in to help rectify the situation within the department."
    Temple spokesman Ray Betzner said: "We will meet our obligation to our students and we will cover these classes."
    One graduate student, who did not want to be named, said she did believe Ichile was leaving for family reasons.
    "It's sad, but I don't think it's related to politics," she said.


    0 0


    Looting, vandalism follow vigil for dead Missouri teenager


    CrimeShootingsLaw EnforcementVandalismRiotsTelevision IndustryNAACP
    18-year-old shot 'more than just a couple of times' by Missouri police officer
    Ferguson, Mo., teen struggled over gun in patrol car before being shot to death, police say
    Looting, vandalism reported after candlelight vigil for dead teenager in St. Louis suburb
    The police shooting of an unarmed teenager in a St. Louis suburb over the weekend triggered angry demonstrations Sunday morning and vandalism and looting Sunday night, local media reported. 
    A few thousand demonstrators had gathered for a candlelight vigil in the evening to honor the dead man, Michael Brown, 18, who was shot Saturday around noon by a Ferguson police officer. 
    Mourners placed candles, flowers and a teddy bear where Brown was killed, the Associated Press reported, and some youths spray-painted "R.I.P. Michael" on the street.
    But then the mood turned ugly. Television footage showed people vandalizing police cars, kicking in store windows and carrying out goods, including bottles of alcohol. At least one large fire was reported. 
    St. Louis County Executive Charlie Dooley confirmed widespread property damage but said no injuries had been reported. 


    "Right now, the small group of people are creating a huge mess," Ferguson Mayor James Knowles told Fox 2 KTVI-TV. "Contributing to the unrest that is going on is not going to help. ... We're only hurting ourselves, only hurting our community, hurting our neighbors."
    Late Sunday, the St. Louis Post Dispatch reported that gunshots had been heard, and a SWAT team had been seen in the area. 
    Earlier, police in riot gear watched but did not intervene.
    On Sunday morning, St. Louis County Police Chief Jon Belmar said the unarmed Brown had been struggling for a Ferguson police officer’s gun in a patrol car before he was killed.
    Witnesses have said the youth, who was black, had his hands in the air as he fled the patrol car.
    Brown's mother said she didn't understand why police didn't subdue him with a club or Taser.


    "I would like to see him fired," Lesley McSpadden told the Associated Press, referring to the officer who shot her son. "I would like to see him go to jail with the death penalty." 
    Belmar said there would be a thorough investigation, with possible inclusion of the FBI. Because Brown is African American, the National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People has said it would seek a federal investigation.
    In a statement on its Facebook page Sunday afternoon, the St. Louis County Police Department, which is handling the shooting investigation, said, “The FBI will be contacted today and notified of the incident. If they choose, they may conduct a separate use-of-force investigation on this incident directly with the Ferguson Police Department.”


    Adolphus Pruitt, the vice president of the NAACP Missouri State Conference and president of the St. Louis NAACP, told the Los Angeles Times that two  Justice Department representatives had arrived in St. Louis late Sunday.
    The Rev. Al Sharpton of the National Action Network said in a statement Sunday that he had been speaking with Brown’s family and that Brown’s grandfather had asked him “to come to St. Louis in light of the police killing of his grandson to assist the family in achieving a fair investigation and justice.”
    According to Belmar, Brown was walking with a friend in the middle of the street when an officer attempted to exit his vehicle. Police said Brown pushed the officer back into the police car.
    Brown then entered the officer’s vehicle and a struggle ensued over the officer’s weapon, according to police. During the altercation a shot was fired inside the car.
    The officer and Brown then exited the vehicle and at that point the fatal shooting occurred, Belmar said.


    The officer who fired the shots has been placed on paid administrative leave and has not been identified. He has been on the force for six years.
    Belmar said Brown was shot “more than just a couple of times,” but it was unclear how many shots were fired.
    Witnesses' accounts have differed from that of the police.
    Dorin Johnson, a friend of the victim, told Fox 2 that he was walking in the street with Brown when the police squad car pulled up. The officer said to "Get the eff onto the sidewalk," he recounted.
    "It was not but a minute from our destination and we would be off the street," Johnson said.
    Johnson said the officer didn't get out of his police car, but reached  "his arm out the window and grabbed my friend around the neck."


    Another witness, Piaget Crenshaw, said, "I witnessed the police chase after the guy, full force. He ran for his life. They shot him and he fell. He put his arms up to let them know that he was compliant and he was unarmed, and they shot him twice more and he fell to the ground and died."
    Brown's grandmother, Desiree Harris, told the Associated Press that she was driving through the neighborhood Saturday afternoon when she saw her grandson running a few blocks from her house.
    Brown was supposed to start college classes Monday.
    "He was running this way," she said. "When I got up there, my grandson was lying on the pavement. I asked the police what happened. They didn't tell me nothing."
    Louis Head, Brown’s stepfather, held a sign that said, “Ferguson police just executed my unarmed son!!!”
    McSpadden said the shooting was “wrong and it was cold-hearted.”
    Belmar said Sunday that the entire incident scene extends roughly 35 feet from where the police car was parked to where the fatal shooting took place, and where shell casings matching the officer’s weapon have been found. He said toxicology reports could take six weeks.
    While the police held the news conference Sunday at the Ferguson police station, hundreds of protesters gathered in front, holding up their hands and saying, "Don't shoot me."
    The protesters chanted, "We want answers" and "No justice, no peace,” some carrying signs saying "stop police terrorism" and "disarm the police," according to the Associated Press.
    “We are sorry that a young man lost his life and ask all to give their condolences to the family along with their thoughts and prayers,” the St. Louis County Police Department said in its Facebook statement.
    “We are investigating this incident as we would any other shooting,” the statement said. “There is no bias or favoritism applied as we are an outside agency and were not involved.”
    Ferguson Police Chief Thomas Jackson described the shooting as tragic in an interview with Fox 2. "It’s tragic for the community. It’s tragic for our police family.”
    "We want this to come to a conclusion quickly,” Jackson said.


    Follow @msrikris for national news

    0 0

    Under the Shadow of Death

    BY THE MOST HONORABLE ELIJAH MUHAMMAD | LAST UPDATED: APR 2, 2012 - 3:17:06 PM

    We, the Black lost-found of our people here in America live under the shadow of death by way of cowardly enemies. Every one of us—the cowardly enemies seek our deaths, one way or another.

    police_beating.jpg
    The cowardly enemies will not fight you as a brave man would fight you if they think that you would fight back. They will steal on you when you least expect an attack from them.
    We live under the shadow of death. We fled from the cowardly enemy devils of the South, seeking refuge in the same cowardly enemies’ brother in the North. The enemy devils of the South followed us to the North to see that his brother of the North does not treat us any better than they did in the South.
    They seek police jobs so that they can beat and kill us who are trying to escape. They seek to kill us, or get us killed, at any price. They do not care about our loyalty to them. In their hearts there is death for us, the Black Man in America.
    Today, they hold out promises to you only to deceive you. They know that Allah (God) is here offering to seat us in heaven at once. And since hell is their appointed place, they are trying to get us to go to hell with them on false promises.
    I have told you. Believe it or let it alone. We live "Under The Shadow of Death."


    0 0

    Hundreds of Thousands March in 'Day of Rage' Against Israel

    As airstrikes continued to rain down on Gaza, Palestinian groups call for international arms embargo against Israel
    Nearly a quarter of a million people marched in Cape Town, South Africa in solidarity with Palestinians in Gaza. (Photo: Che Erasmus Nche / Eras Media Productions via BDS South Africa)
    As Israeli airstrikes continued to rain down on the the Gaza Strip on Saturday, hundreds of thousands of people worldwide are taking to the streets in an international Day of Rage to condemn the attacks and demand that their governments do their part and boycott Israel.
    In an open letter announcing the demonstration, a coalition of Palestinian groups organized by the Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) Movement, write: "As we face the full might of Israel’s military arsenal, funded and supplied by the United States and European Union, we call on civil society and people of conscience throughout the world to pressure governments to sanction Israel and implement a comprehensive arms embargo immediately."
    Taking up their call, an estimated 170,000 people took to the streets of Cape Town, South Africa in one of the biggest demonstrations the city has seen in 20 years. According to reports, Archbishop Desmond Tutu joined the marchers who carried signs that read: "Africans understand colonialism," and “Zuma suffer of (sic) historical amnesia."
    In London, over 100,000 people rallied in Hyde Park in a massive outpouring of solidarity and in Paris activists marched through the city carrying a large banner which read: "Boycott Israel Apartheid."

    New Yorkers march against Israeli war on Gaza
    New Yorkers march against Israeli war on Gaza

    Around 1,000 people took to the streets of Columbus Circle to protest Israeli attacks in the Gaza Strip and call for an end to U.S. support to Israel.

    World Bulletin / News Desk
    Around 1,000 people rallied in New York City Friday to protest against Israeli attacks in the Gaza Strip which have killed over 1,600 Palestinians since July 7.
    At an event called the "Mass Rally to Stand Up with Gaza Against Israeli Crimes," the crowd marched through the streets of Columbus Circle waving Palestinian flags and holding signs calling for an end to Israeli apartheid, and U.S. aid to Israel.
    The large group gathered outside CNN’s offices where they protested against the network's "biased coverage" of Israel's war on Gaza before marching to the offices of Fox News amid chants of “Free, free, Palestine” and other slogans.
    The protest was relatively peaceful apart from an incident where two counter-protesters engaged in a lengthy verbal dispute with the demonstrators until police broke it up.
    Waters were not calm on the other side of the pond in the Belgian capital, Brussels either where hundreds of people gathered at Martyrs' Square on Friday to protest against Israel's war on Gaza, and commemorate the thousands of Palestinians killed in the Israeli attacks.
    At an event organized by the the Workers' Party of Belgium (PTB), the crowd left flowers and prayed for the hundreds of children killed by Israeli air strikes, chanting slogans such as "Child murderer Israel."
    "We cannot remain silent when people are dying in Gaza. Nobody can expect us to be indifferent," said Youssef Handichi, Brussels regional deputy for the PTB.
    "We condemn the terrorist and oppressor Israel," Handichi said.
    Another pro-Palestine rally is planned for Sunday in the U.S. capital Washington D.C. where a large crowd is expected to march from the White House to the Congress.



    0 0


    Sunday, April 17, 2011

    Ten Points for Youth Survival in the Street


    Dr. M at his Academy of da Corner,
    14th and Broadway, Oakland, with his student,
    brother Jermaine.







    Ten Points for Youth Survival

    1. Before going into the street, put on the amour of God or Spiritual consciousness,i.e., yea thou I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I shall fear no evil. The Lord is my rod and staff.

    2. Be aware of your surroundings. Two are better than one, for if you stumble and fall, who shall lift you up? Do not stay long in unfamiliar places with strange people.

    3. Be conscious of the tone test with the police, e.g., if they stop you for any reason, one of three things can happen depending on your tone of voice: they can kill you, arrest you or release you.

    4. Be conscious of the tone test with another brother or sister: they can kill you, bum rush you or greet you in peace.

    5. Do not wear sagging pants that prevent you from running or fighting. The ghetto, sad to say, is a war zone or hostile environment. Do not pretend you are in La La Land. There are mind fields everywhere, so try not to be in a mind altered state. It is best to be cold sober on the street.

    6. Respect elders and do not take liberties with women.

    7. Help the poor, say a kind word to the broken hearted.

    8. At all times, be a soldier in the army of the Lord.

    9. Pray going out and coming in. Be thankful you made it back home safely.

    10. Make your home the No Stress Zone.

    --Marvin X
    4/17/11

    0 0
  • 08/14/14--16:10: Hands up, don't shoot!

  • America has been at war with North American Africans since we arrived as victims of kidnapping, mass rape, torture, terror and trauma. James Baldwin told me in a 1968 interview, "Nothing else happened here but us. For a black father to raise a black son in this environment is a miracle. I applaud the men who are able to do so. It's a wonder we all haven't gone stark raving mad."
    --Marvin X






















    0 0

    page1image448page1image608page1image768page1image928
    Review Essays
    The Quranic Concept of War1 JOSEPH C. MYERS


    The universalism of Islam, in its all-embracing creed, is imposed on the be- lievers as a continuous process of warfare, psychological and political, if not strictly military. . . . The Jihad, accordingly, may be stated as a doctrine of a permanent state of war, not continuous fighting.”2
    — Majid Khadduri
    Political and military leaders are notoriously averse to theory, but if there is a the- orist about war who matters, it remains Carl von Clausewitz, whose Vom Kriege (On War) has shaped Western views about war since the middle of the nineteenth century.”3 Both points are likely true and problematic since we find ourselves en- gaged in war with people not solely imbued with western ideas and values or fol- lowers of western military theorists. The Hoover Institution’s Paul Sperry recently stated, “Four years into the war on terror, US intelligence officials tell me there are no baseline studies of the Muslim prophet Muhammad or his ideological or military doctrine found at either the CIA or Defense Intelligence Agency, or even the war colleges.”4
    Would this be surprising? When it comes to warfighting military audiences tend to focus on the military and power aspects of warfare; the tangibles of terrain, enemy, weather, leadership, and troops; quantifiables such as the number of tanks and artillery tubes—the correlation of forces. Analysts steer toward the familiar rather than the unfamiliar; people tend to think in their comfort zones. The study of ideology or philosophy is often brushed aside, it’s not the “stuff of muddy boots;” it is more cerebral than physical and not action oriented. Planners do not assess the “cor- relation of ideas.” The practitioners are too busy.
    Dr. Antulio Echevarria recently argued the US military does not have a doc- trine for war as much as it has a doctrine for operations and battles.5 The military has a deficit of strategic, and, one could add, philosophic thinking. In the war against Islamist terrorism, how many have heard of the Muslim Brotherhood’s “Project”?6 Is the political philosophy of Ayatollah Khomeini, who was in fact well-grounded in western political theory and rigorously rejected it, studied in our military schools? Are there any implications to his statement in 1981 that “Iran . . . is determined to propagate Islam to the whole world”?7
    108 Parameters
    page1image21496page1image21656page1image21816page1image21976page1image22136page1image22296
    page2image432page2image592page2image752page2image912
    To understand war, one has to study its philosophy; the grammar and logic of your opponent. Only then are you approaching strategic comprehension. To understand the war against Islamist terrorism one must begin to understand the Islamic way of war, its philosophy and doctrine, the meanings of jihad in Islam—and one needs to under- stand that those meanings are highly varied and utilitarian depending on the source.
    With respect to the war against the global jihad and its associated terror groups, individual terrorists, and clandestine adherents, one should ask if there is a unique method or attitude to their approach to war. Is there a philosophy, or treatise such as Clausewitz’s On War that attempts to form their thinking about war? Is there a docu- ment that can be reviewed and understood in such a manner that we may begin to think strategically about our opponent. There is one work that stands out from the many.

    The Quranic Concept of War

    The Quranic Concept of War, by Brigadier General S. K. Malik of the Paki- stani Army provides readers with unequalled insight. Originally published in Paki- stan in 1979, most available copies are found in India, or in small non-descript Muslim bookstores.8 One major point to ponder, when thinking about The Quranic Concept of War, is the title itself. The Quran is presumed to be the revealed word of God as spoken through his chosen prophet, Mohammed. According to Malik, the Quran places warfighting doctrine and its theory in a much different category than western thinkers are accustomed to, because it is not a theory of war derived by man, but of God. This is God’s warfighting principles and commandments revealed. Malik’s attempts to distill God’s doctrine for war through the examples of the Prophet. By contrast, the closest that Clausewitz comes to divine presentation is in his discussion of the trinity: the people, the state, and the military. In the Islamic con- text, the discussion of war is at the level of revealed truth and example, well above theory—God has no need to theorize. Malik notes, “As a complete Code of Life, the Holy Quran gives us a philosophy of war as well. . . . This divine philosophy is an in- tegral part of the total Quranic ideology.”9

    Historiography

    In The Quranic Concept of War, Malik seeks to instruct readers in the uniquely important doctrinal aspects of Quranic warfare. The Quranic approach to war is “infinitely supreme and effective . . . [and] points towards the realization of universal peace and justice . . . and makes maximum allowance to its adversaries to co-operate [with Islam] in a combined search for a just and peaceful order.”10 For pur- poses of this review, the term “doctrine” refers to both religious and broad strategic approaches, not methods and procedures. Malik’s work is a treatise with historical, political, legalistic, and moralistic ramifications on Islamic warfare. It seemingly is without parallel in the western sense of warfare since the “Quran is a source of eter- nal guidance for mankind.”11
    The approach is not new to Islamists and other jihad theorists fighting ac- cording to the “Method of Mohammed” or hadith. The lessons learned are recorded and form an important part of Quranic surah and jihadist’s scholarship.12 Islamic scholars both Muslim and non-Muslim will find much to debate in terms of Malik’s view of jihad doctrine and Quranic warfare. Malik’s work is essentially modern scholarship; although he does acknowledge the classical views of jihad in many respects.13page3image432page3image592page3image752page3image912page2image27968page2image28128page2image28288page2image28448
    Malik’s arguments are clearly parochial, often more editorial than schol- arly, and his tone is decidedly confident and occasionally supremacist. The reach and influence of the author’s work is not clear although one might believe that given the idealism of his treatise, his approaches to warfare, and the role and ends of “terror” his text may resonate with extremist and radicals prone to use terroristic violence to accomplish their ends. For that reason alone, the book is worth studying.

    Introduction

    The preface by Allah Bukhsh K. Brohi, the former Pakistani ambassador to India, offers important insights into Malik’s exposition. In fact, Brohi’s 13-page preface lays the foundation for the books ten chapters. Malik places Quranic warfare in an academic context relative to that used by western theorists. He analyzes the causes and objects of war, as well as war’s nature and dimensions. He then turns at- tention to the ethics and strategy of warfare. Toward the end of the book he reviews the exercise of Quranic warfare based on the examples of the Prophet Mohammed’s military campaigns and concludes with summary observations. There are important jus en bellum and jus ad bellum implications in the author’s writings, as well as in his controversial ideas related to the means and objectives of war. It is these concepts that warrant the attention of planners and strategist.
    Zia-Ul-Haq (1924-88), the former President of Pakistan and Pakistani Army Chief of Staff, opens the book by focusing on the concept of jihad within Islam and explaining it is not simply the domain of the military:
    Jehad fi sabilallah is not the exclusive domain of the professional soldier, nor is it restricted to the application of military force alone.

    This book brings out with simplicity, clarity and precision the Quranic philosophy on the application of military force within the context of the totality that is JEHAD. The professional soldier in a Muslim army, pursuing the goals of a Muslim state, cannot become ‘professional’ if in all his activities he does not take the ‘colour of Allah,’ The nonmilitary citizen of a Muslin state must, likewise, be aware of the kind of soldier that his country must produce and the only pattern of war that his country’s armed forces may wage.14
    General Zia states that all Muslims play a role in jihad, a mainstream con- cept of the Quran, that jihad in terms of warfare is a collective responsibility of the Muslim ummah, and is not restricted to soldiers. General Zia emphasizes how the concept of Islamic military professionalism requires “godly character” in order to be fully achieved. Zia then endorses Malik’s thesis as the “only pattern of war,” or ap- proach to war that an Islamic state may wage.
    110 Parameters

    Battling Counter-initiatory Forces
    page4image432page4image592page4image752page4image912page3image26880page3image27040page3image27200page3image27360
    In the preface Ambassador Brohi details what might be startling to many readers. He states that Malik has made “a valuable contribution to Islamic jurispru- dence” or Islamic law, and an “analytic restatement of the Quranic wisdom on the subject of war and peace.” Brohi implies that Malik’s discussion, though a valuable new version, is an approach to a theme already well developed.15
    Brohi then defines jihad, “The most glorious word in the Vocabulary of Is- lam is Jehad, a word which is untranslatable in English but, broadly speaking, means ‘striving’, ‘struggling’, ‘trying’ to advance the Divine causes or purposes.” He intro- duces a somewhat cryptic concept when he explains man’s role in a “Quranic setting” as energetically combating forces of evil or what may be called, “counter-initiatory” forces which are at war with the harmony and the purpose of life on earth.16 For the true Muslin the harmony and purpose in life are only possible through man’s ultimate submission to God’s will, that all will come to know, recognize, and profess Moham- med as the Prophet of God. Man must recognize the last days and acknowledge tawhid, the oneness of God.17
    Brohi recounts the classic dualisms of Islamic theology; that the world is a place of struggle between good and evil, between right and wrong, between Haq and Na-Haq (truth and untruth), and between halal and haram (legitimate and forbid- den). According to Brohi, it is the duty of man to opt for goodness and reject evil. Brohi appeals to the “greater jihad,” a post-classical jihad doctrine developed by the mystical Sufi order and other Shia scholars.18
    Brohi places jihad in the context of communal if not imperial obligation; both controversial formulations:
    When a believer sees that someone is trying to obstruct another believer from travel- ing the road that leads to God, spirit of Jehad requires that such a man who is impos- ing obstacles should be prevented from doing so and the obstacles placed by him should also be removed, so that mankind may be freely able to negotiate its own path that leads to Heaven.” To do otherwise, “by not striving to clear or straighten the path we [Muslims] become passive spectators of the counter-initiatory forces imposing a blockade in the way of those who mean to keep their faith with God.19
    This viewpoint appears to reflect the classic, collective duty within jihad doctrine, to defend the Islamic community from threats—the concept of defensive ji- had. Brohi is saying much more than that; however, he is attempting to delineate the duty—the proactive duty—to clear the path for Islam. It is necessary not only to defend the individual believer if he is being hindered in his faith, but also to remove the obsta- cles of those counter-initiatory forces hindering his Islamic development. This begs the question of what is actually meant by the initiatory forces. The answer is clear to Brohi; the force of initiative is Islam and its Muslim members. “It is the duty of a be- liever to carry forward the Message of God and to bring it to notice of his fellow-men in handsome ways. But if someone attempts to obstruct him from doing so he is entitled as a matter of defense, to retaliate.”20

    This formulation would appear to turn the concept of defense on its head. To the extent that a Muslim may proclaim Islam and proselytize, or Islam, as a faith, seeks to extend its invitation and reach—initiate its advance—but is unable to do so, then that represents an overt threat justifying—a defensive jihad. According to Brohi, this does not result in the “ordinary wars which mankind has been fighting for the sake of either revenge or for securing . . . more land or more booty . . . [this] striv- ing must be [is] for the sake of God. Wars in the theory of Islam are . . . to advance God’s purposes on earth, and invariably they are defensive in character.” In other words, everywhere the message of God and Islam is or can be hindered from expan- sion, resisted or opposed by some “obstruction” (a term not clearly defined) Islam is intrinsically entitled to defend its manifest destiny.21page5image432page5image592page5image752page5image912page4image28512page4image28672page4image28832page4image28992
    While his logic is controversial, Brohi is not unique in his extrapolation. His theory in fact reflects the argument of Rashid Rida, a conservative disciple of the Egyptian Muhammad Abduh. In 1913 Abduh published an article evaluating Islam’s early military campaigns and determined that Islam’s early neighbors “prevented the proclamation of truth” engendering the defense of Islam. “Our religion is not like others that defend themselves . . . but our defense of our religion is the proclamation of truth and the removal of distortion and misrepresentation of it.”22

    No Nation is Sovereign

    The exegesis of the term jihad is often debated. Some apologists make clear that nowhere in the Quran does the term “Holy War” exist; that is true, but it is also irrelevant. War in Islam is either just or unjust and that justness depends on the ends of war. Brohi, and later Malik, make clear that the ends of war in Islam or jihad are to fulfill God’s divine purpose. Not only should that be a holy purpose, it must be a just war in order to be “Holy War.”23
    The next dualism Brohi presents is that of Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb, the house of submission and the house of war. He describes the latter, as “perpetuat- ing defiance of the Lord.” While explaining that conditions for war in Islam are lim- ited (a constrained set of circumstances) he notes that “in Islam war is waged to establish supremacy of the Lord only when every other argument has failed to con- vince those who reject His will and work against the very purpose of the creation of mankind.”24 Brohi quotes the Quranic manuscript Surah, al-Tawba:
    Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the reli- gion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.25
    Acknowledging western critics who believe that Islam is in a state of per- petual struggle with the non-Islamic world, Brohi counters in a clearly dismissive tone by explaining that man is the slave to God, and defying God is treason under Is- lamic law. Those who defy God should be removed from humanity like a cancerous growth. Islam requires believers “to invite non-believers to the fold of Islam” by us- ing “persuasion” and “beautiful methods.” He continues, “the first duty” of a Muslim
    is dawa, a proclamation to conversion by “handsome ways.” It is only after refusing dawa and the invitation to Islam that “believers have no option but in self-defense to wage a war against those threatening aggression.”page6image432page6image592page6image752page6image912page5image29712page5image29872page5image30032page5image30192
    Obviously, much turns on how threats and aggression are characterized. It is difficult to understand, however, based on the structure of his argument, that Brohi views non-believers and their states as requiring conversion over time by peaceful means; and when that fails, by force. He is echoing the doctrine of Abd al-Salam Faraj, author of Al-Farida al-Ghaibah, better known as The Neglected Duty, a work that is widely read throughout the Muslim world.26
    Finally, Brohi examines the concept of the ummah and the international system. “The idea of Ummah of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, is incapable of be- ing realized within the framework of territorial states.” This is a consistent view that underpins many works on the concept of the Islamic state.27 For Muslims, the ummah is a transcendent religious and cultural society united and reflecting the unity (tawhid) of Islam; the idea of one God, indivisible, one community, one belief, and one duty to live and become godly. According to the Prophet, “Ummah participates in this heritage by a set pattern of thought, belief and practice . . . and supplies the spiritual principle of integration of mankind—a principle which is supra-national, supra-racial, supra-linguistic and supra-territorial.”28
    With respect to the “law of war and peace in Islam” Brohi writes it “is as old as the Quran itself. . . . ” In his analysis of the law of nations and their international dealings, he emphasizes that in “Islamic international law this conduct [war and peace] is, strictly speaking, regulated between Muslims and non-Muslims, there be- ing, from Islamic perspective, no other nation. . . . ” In other words, war is between Muslims and non-Muslims and not in actuality between states. It is transnational. He adds, “In Islam, of course, no nation is sovereign since Allah alone is the only sover- eign in Whom all authority vests.”29 Here Brohi is echoing what Islamic scholars such as Majid Khadduri have described as the “dualism of the universal religion and universal state that is Islam.”30

    The Divine Philosophy on War

    General Malik begins by categorizing human beings into three archetypes: those who fear Allah and profess the Faith; those who reject the Faith; and those who profess, but are treacherous in their hearts. Examples of the Prophet and the instruc- tions to him by God in his early campaigns should be studied to fully understand these three examples in practice. The author highlights the fact that the “divine phi- losophy on war” was revealed gradually over a 12 year period, its earliest guidance dealing with the causes and objects of war, while later guidance focused on Quranic strategy, the conduct of war, and the ethical dimensions of warfare.31
    In Chapter Three, Malik reviews several key thoughts espoused by western scholars related to the causes of war. He examines the ideologies of Lenin, Geoffery Blainey, Quincy Wright, and Frederick H. Hartman each of whom spoke about war in a historical or material context with respect to the nature of the state system. Malik finds these explanations wanting and turns to the Quran for explanation, “war could only be waged for the sake of justice, truth, law, and preservation of human society. . . . The cen- tral theme behind the causes of war . . . [in] the Holy Quran, was the cause of Allah.”32page7image432page7image592page7image752page7image912page6image28976page6image29136page6image29296page6image29456
    The author recounts the progression of revelations by God to the Prophet that “granted the Muslims the permission to fight . . . .” Ultimately, God would compel and command Muslims to fight: “Fight in the cause of Allah.” In his analysis of this surah Malik highlights the fact that “new elements” were added to the causes of war: that in order to fight, Muslims must be “fought first;” Muslims are not to “transgress God’s limits” in the conduct of war; and everyone should understand that God views “tumult and oppression” of Muslims as “worse than slaughter.”33 This oppression was exemplified by the denial of Muslim’s right to worship at the Sacred Mosque by the early Arab Koraish, people of Mecca. Malik describes the situation in detail, “. . . the tiny Muslim community in Mecca was the object of the Koraish tyranny and oppres- sion since the proclamation of Islam. . . . The enemy repression reached its zenith when the Koraish denied the Muslims access to the Sacred Mosque (the Ka’aba) to fulfill their religious obligations. This sacrilegious act amounted to an open declaration of war upon Islam. These actions eventually compelling the Muslims to migrate to Me- dina twelve years later, in 622 AD. . . .”34
    Malik argues that the pagan Koraish tribe had no reason to prohibit Muslim worship, since the Muslims did not impede their form of worship. This historical ex- ample helps to further define the concept that “tumult and oppression is worse than slaughter” and as the Quran repeats, “graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent ac- cess to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members.” Malik also notes the Quran distinguishes those who fight “in the cause of Allah and those who reject Faith and fight in the cause of evil.”35 In terms of Quranic just war theory, war must be waged “only to fight the forces of tyranny and oppression.”36
    Challenging Clausewitz’s notion that “policy” provides the context and boundary of war; Malik says it is the reverse, “‘war’ forced policy to define and de- termine its own parameters” and since that discussion focuses on parochial issues such as national interests, and the vagaries of state to state relations it is a lesser per- spective. In the divine context of the Quran war orients on the spread of “justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere.” According to the author war is to be fought aggressively, slaughter is not the worst evil. In the course of war every oppor- tunity for peace should be pursued and reciprocated. That is every remonstrance of peace by the enemies of Islam, but only as prescribed by the Quran’s “clear-cut phi- losophy and methodology” for preserving peace.37
    Understanding the context in which the Quran describes and defines “jus- tice and peace” is important. Malik refers the reader to the battle of Badr to elucidate these principles. There is peace with those pagans who cease hostilities, and war con- tinues with those who refuse. He cites the following surah, “as long as these stand true to you, stand ye true to them, for Allah doth love the righteous.”38 Referring to the precedent setting Hodaibayya treaty in the ninth year of the hijra, or pilgrimages to Mecca, Malik outlines how Allah and the Prophet abrogated those treaties with the pagan Meccans.

    page7image30976page7image31136page7image31296page7image31456
    page8image432page8image592page8image752page8image912
    Pagans who accepted terms voluntarily without a treaty were respected. Those who refused, the Quran directed, were to be slain wherever found. This prece- dent and “revelations commanded the Muslims to fulfill their treaty commitments for the contracted period but put them under no obligations to renew them.”39 It also estab- lished the precedent that Muslims may conclude treaties with non-believers, but only for a temporary period.40 Commenting on western approaches to peace, Malik views such approaches as not standing the “test of time” with no worthwhile role to play even in the future.41 The author’s point is that peace between states has only secular, not di- vine ends; and peace in an Islamic context is achieved only for the promotion of Islam.
    As the Prophet gained control of Mecca he decreed that non-believers could assemble or watch over the Sacred Mosque. He later consolidated power over Arabia and many who had not yet accepted Islam, “including Christians and Jew, [they] were given the option to choose between war and submission.” These non-believers were re- quired to pay a poll-tax or jizya and accept the status of dhimmitude [servitude to Islam] in order to continue practicing their faith. According to Malik the taxes were merely symbolic and insignificant. In summarizing this relationship the author states, “the ob- ject of war is to obtain conditions of peace, justice, and faith. To do so it is essential to de- stroy the forces of oppression and persecution.”42 This view is in keeping with that outlined by Khadduri, “The jihad, it will be recalled, regarded war as Islam’s instrument to transform the dar al-harb into dar al-Islam . . . in Islamic legal theory, the ultimate ob- jective of Islam is not war per se, but the ultimate establishment of peace.”43

    The Nature of War

    Malik argues that the “nature and dimension of war” is the greatest single characteristic of Quranic warfare and distinguishes it from all other doctrines. He ac- knowledges Clausewitz’s contribution to the understanding of warfare in its moral and spiritual context. The moral forces of war, as Clausewitz declared, are perhaps the most important aspects in war. Reiterating that Muslims are required to wage war “with the spirit of religious duty and obligation,” the author makes it clear that in re- turn for fighting in the way of Allah, divine, angelic assistance will be rendered to ji- had warriors and armies. At this point The Quranic Concept of War moves beyond the metaphysical to the supernatural element, unlike anything found in western doc- trine. Malik highlights the fact that divine assistance requires “divine standards” on the part of the warrior mujahideen for the promise of Allah’s aid to be met.44
    The author then builds upon the jihad warrior’s role in the realms of divine cause, purpose, and support, to argue that in order for the Muslim warrior to be un- matched, to be the bravest and the most fearless; he can only do so through the correct spiritual preparation, beginning with total submission to God’s will. The Quran re- veals that the moral forces are the “real issues involved in the planning and conduct of war.”45 Malik quotes the Quran: “Fighting is prescribed for you . . . and ye dislike a thing which is good for you and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not.”
    The Quran instructs the jihad warrior “to fight . . . with total devotion and never contemplate a flight from the battlefield for fear of death.” The jihad warrior, who dies in the way of Allah, does not really die but lives on in heaven. Malik empha- sizes this in several Quranic verses. “Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. . . . Nay, they live finding their sustenance in the Presence of the Lord.” Malik also notes that “Not equal are those Believers . . . Allah has granted a higher grade to those who strive and fight . . . .”46page9image432page9image592page9image752page9image912page8image30544page8image30704page8image30864page8image31024
    The Quranic dimensions of war are “revolutionary,” conferring on the ji- had warrior a “personality so strong and overbearing as to prove themselves equal to, indeed dominate, every contingency in war.”47 This theme of spiritual preparation and pure belief has appeared in the prolific jihad writings of Usaman Dan Fodio in the early 1800s and repeated by the Saudi writer Abdallah al-Qadiri in 1992, both emphasizing the role of the “greater jihad.” Becoming a purer and more disciplined Muslim serves the cause of Islam better in peace and war.48
    Malik, like Brohi, acknowledges critics who say that Islam has been “spread by the sword,” but he responds that Islam is spread through restraint in war and in “the use of force [that] have no parallel.” He then argues that restraint in warfare is a “two- sided affair.” Where the enemy (not defined) fails to exercise restraints and commits “excesses” (not defined) then “the very injunction of preserving and promoting peace and justice demands the use of limited force . . . . Islam permits the use of the sword for such purpose.”49 Since Malik is speaking in the context of active war and response to the “excesses of war” it is unclear what he means by “limited force” or response.
    The author expands on the earlier ideas that moral and spiritual forces are pre- dominate in war. He contrasts Islamic strategic approaches with western theories of war- fare oriented toward the application of force, primarily in the military domain, as opposed to Islam where the focus is on a broader application of power. Power in Malik’s context is the power of jihad, which is total, both in the conduct of total war and in its supporting strategy; referred to as “total or grand strategy.” Malik provides the follow- ing definition, “Jehad is a continuous and never-ending struggle waged on all fronts in- cluding political, economic, social, psychological, domestic, moral and spiritual to attain the objectives of policy.”50 The power of jihad brings with it the power of God.
    The Quranic concept of strategy is therefore divine theory. The examples and lessons to be derived from it may be found in the study of the classics, inspired by such events as the battles of the Prophet, e.g., Badr, Khandaq, Tabuk, and Hudaibiyya. Malik again references the divine assistance of Allah and the aid of angelic hosts. He refers to the battles of Hunain and Ohad as instances where seeming defeat was re- versed and Allah “sent down Tranquility into the hearts of believers, that they may add Faith to their Faith.” Malik argues that divine providence steels the jihadi in war, “strengthens the hearts of Believers.” Calmness of faith, “assurance, hope, and tran- quility” in the face of danger is the divine standard.51

    Strike Terror into their Hearts
    Malik uses examples to demonstrate that Allah will strike “terror into the hearts of Unbelievers.”52 At this point he begins to develop his most controversial and conjectural Quranic theory related to warfare—the role of terror. Readers need to un- derstand that the author is thinking and writing in strategic terms, not in the vernacular of battles or engagements. Malik continues, “when God wishes to impose His will on his enemies, He chooses to do so by casting terror into their hearts.”53 He cites another verse, “against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts) of the enemies of Allah . . . .” Malik’s strategic synthesis is specific: “the Quranic military strategy thus enjoins us to prepare ourselves for war to the utmost in order to strike terror into the hearts of the enemies, known or hidden, while guarding ourselves from being terror-stricken by the en- emy.”54 Terror is an effect; the end-state.page10image432page10image592page10image752page10image912page9image30816page9image30976page9image31136page9image31296
    Malik identifies the center of gravity in war as the “human heart, [man’s] soul, spirit, and Faith.” Note that Faith is capitalized, meaning more than simple moral courage or fortitude. Faith in this sense is in the domain of religious and spiritual faith; this is the center of gravity in war. The main weapon against this Islamic concept of center of gravity is “the strength of our own souls . . . [keeping] terror away from our own hearts.” In terms of achieving decisive and direct decisions preparing for this type of battlefield first requires “creating a wholesome respect for our Cause”—the cause of Islam. This “respect” must be seeded in advance of war and conflict in the minds of the enemies. Malik then introduces the informational, psychological, or perception management concepts of warfare. Echoing Sun Tzu, he states, that if properly pre- pared, the “war of muscle,” the physical war, will already be won by “the war of will.”55 “Respect” therefore is achieved psychologically by, as Brohi suggested earlier, “beautiful” and “handsome ways” or by the strategic application of terror.
    When examining the theme of the preparatory stage of war, Malik talks of the “war of preparation being waged . . . in peace,” meaning that peacetime prepara- tory activities are in fact part of any war and “vastly more important than the active war.” This statement should not be taken lightly, it essentially means that Islam is in a perpetual state of war while peace can only be defined as the absence of active war. Malik argues that peace-time training efforts should be oriented on the active war(s) to come, in order to develop the Quranic and divine “Will” in the mujahid. When ar- mies and soldiers find limited physical resources they should continue and empha- size the development of the “spiritual resources” as these are complimentary factors and create synergy for future military action.
    Malik’s most controversial dictum is summarized in the following manner: in war, “the point where the means and the end meet” is in terror. He formulates terror as an objective principal of war; once terror is achieved the enemy reaches his culminating point. “Terror is not a means of imposing decision upon the enemy; it is the decision we wish to impose . . . .” Malik’s divine principal of Islamic warfare may be restated as “strike terror; never feel terror.” The ultimate objective of this form of warfare “revolves around the human heart, [the enemies] soul, spirit, and Faith.”56 Terror “can be instilled only if the opponent’s Faith is destroyed . . . . It is essential in the ultimate analysis, to dis- locate [the enemies] Faith.” Those who are firm in their religious conviction are immune to terror, “a weak Faith offers inroads to terror.” Therefore, as part of preparations for ji- had, actions will be oriented on weakening the non-Islamic’s “Faith,” while strengthen- ing the Islamic’s. What that weakening or “dislocation” entails in practice remains ambiguous. Malik concludes, “Psychological dislocation is temporary; spiritual dislo- cation is permanent.” The soul of man can only be touched by terror.5
    page10image31888page10image32048page10image32208page10image32368
    page11image432page11image592page11image752page11image912
    Malik then moves to a more academic discussion of ten general categories inherent in the conduct of Islamic warfare. These categories are easily translatable and recognizable to most western theorists; planning, organization, and conduct of mili- tary operations. In this regard, the author offers no unique insight. His last chapter is used to restate his major conclusions, stressing that “The Holy Quran lays the highest emphasis on the preparation for war. It wants us to prepare ourselves for war to the ut- most. The test . . . lies in our capability to instill terror into the hearts of our enemies.”58

    Evaluation of The Quranic Concept of War

    While the extent and reach of Malik’s thesis cannot be confirmed in the Is- lamic world neither can it be discounted. Though controversial, his citations are accu- rately drawn from Islamic sources and consistent with classical Islamic jurisprudence.59 As Malik notes, “Quranic military thought is an integral and inseparable part of the total Quranic message.”60 Policy planners and strategists striving to understand the nature of the “Long War” should consider Malik’s writings in that light.
    Malik makes clear that the Quran provides the doctrine, guidance, and ex- amples for the conduct of Quranic or Islamic warfare. “It gives a strategy of war that penetrates deep down to destroy the opponents’ faith and render his physical and mental faculties totally ineffective.”61 Malik’s thesis focuses on the fact that the pri- mary reason for studying the Quran is to gain a greater understanding of these con- cepts and insights. The Prophet Mohammed, as the Quran attests, changed the intent and objective of war—raising the sphere of war to a Godly plane and purpose; the global proclamation and spread of Islam. This obviously rejects the Clausewitizian politics and policy dyad: that war is simply policy of the state.
    Quranic warfare is “just war.” It is jus en bellum and jus ad bellum if fought “in the way of Allah” for divine purposes and the ends of Islam. This contradicts the western philosophy of just war theory. Another important connotation is that jihad is a continuum, across peace and war. It is a constant and covers the spectrum from grand strategy to tactical; collective to the individual; from the preparatory to the ex- ecution phases of war.
    Malik highlights the fact that the preservation of life is not the ultimate end or greatest good in Quranic warfare. Ending “tumult and oppression,” achieving the war aims of Islam through jihad is the desired end. Dying in this cause brings direct re- ward in heaven for the mujahid, sacrifice is sacred. It naturally follows that death is not feared in Quranic warfare; indeed, “tranquility” invites God’s divine aid and assis- tance. The “Base” of the Quranic military strategy is spiritual preparation and “guard- ing ourselves against terror.”62 Readers may surmise that the training camps of al Qaeda (The Base) were designed as much for spiritual preparation as military. One needs only to recall the example of Mohammed Atta’s “last night” preparations.63
    The battleground of Quranic war is the human soul—it is religious warfare. The object of war is to dislocate and destroy the [religious] “Faith” of the enemy. These principals are consistent with objectives of al Qaeda and other radical Islamic organizations. “Wars in the theory of Islam are . . . to advance God’s purposes on earth, and invariably they are defensive in character.”64 Peace treaties in theory are temporary, pragmatic protocols. This treatise acknowledges Islam’s manifest des- tiny and the approach to achieving it.page12image432page12image592page12image752page12image912page11image29696page11image29856page11image30016page11image30176
    General Malik’s thesis in The Quranic Concept of War can be fundamen- tally described as “Islam is the answer.” He makes a case for war and the revitaliza- tion of Islam. This is a martial exegesis of the Quran. Malik like other modern Islamists are, at root, romantics. They focus on the Quran for jihad a doctrine that harkens back to the time of the Prophet and the classical-jihadist period when Islam enjoyed its most successful military campaigns and rapid growth.
    The book’s metaphysical content borders on the supernatural and renders “assured expectations” that cannot be evaluated or tested in the arena of military ex- perience. Incorporating “divine intervention” into military campaigns, while possi- bly advantageous, cannot be calculated as an overt force multiplier. Critics may also point to the ahistorical aspect of Malik’s thesis; that Islam is in a state of constant struggle with the non-Islamic world. There are examples of Muslim armies serving side by side with Christian armies in combat and campaigns are numerous, with Iraq being but a recent example.65
    Malik’s appraisal of the Quran as a source of divine revelation for victory in war can likewise be criticized by historical example. Were it fully true and operationalized then the 1,400 years of Islamic military history might demonstrate something beyond its present state. War and peace in Islam has ebbed and flowed as has the conduct of war across all civilizations, ancient and modern. Islam as an inde- pendent military force has been in recession since 1492, although the latest jihadist’s threat of terror against the international system is, at least in part, a possible reaction to this long recession. Malik’s thesis essentially recognizes this historical pattern; in- deed, Malik’s book may be an attempt to reverse this trend. The events of 9/11 may be seen as a validation of Malik’s thesis regarding the spiritual preparation and the use of terror. The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were intended to seed “respect” (fear) in the minds of Islam’s enemies. These acts were not only di- rected at Western non-believers, but also the Muslim leaders who “profess the faith but are treacherous in their hearts” (allies and supporters of the United States). The barbarity of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and others in Iraq reflect a focus on extreme ter- ror designed to wilt the will of Islam’s enemies.
    Malik and Brohi both emphasize the defensive nature of jihad in Islam, but this position appears to be more a defense of a manifest destiny inevitably resulting in conflict. In their rendering of jihad both, not surprisingly, owe an intellectual debt to the Pakistani Islamist theorist, Abu al-Ala al-Mawdudi. Al-Mawdudi is an impor- tant intellectual precursor to the Muslim Brotherhood, Sayyid Qutb, and other mod- ern Islamic revivalists. As al-Mawdudi notes, “Islamic jihad is both offensive and defensive” oriented on liberating man from humanistic tyranny.66
    The author’s most controversial and, perhaps, most noteworthy assertion, is the distinction of “terror” as an ends rather than as a means to an end. The soul can only be touched by terror. Malik’s divine principal of war may be summarized in the dictum “strike terror; never feel terror.” Yet, he does not describe any specific method of deliv- ering terror into the heart of Islam’s enemies. His view of terror seems to conflict with his earlier, limited, discussion of the concept of restraint in warfare and what actually constitutes “excesses” on the part of an enemy. It also conflicts with the character and nature of response that the author says is demanded. Malik leaves many of these perti- nent issues undefined under a veneer of legitimating theory.page13image432page13image592page13image752page13image912page12image30312page12image30472page12image30632page12image30792
    In spite of certain ambiguities and theoretical weaknesses, this work should be studied and valued for its insight and analysis relate to jihadists’ concepts and the asymmetric approach to war that radical Muslims may adapt and execute. With respect to global jihad terrorism, as the events of 9/11 so vividly demonstrated, there are those who believe and will exercise the tenets of The Quranic Concept of War.

    NOTES

    1. Brigadier S. K. Malik, The Quranic Concept of War (Lahore, Pakistan: Associated Printers, 1979). Quranic War or Quranic Warfare refers to Malik’s treatment in his book.
    2. Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam (Baltimore, Md.: John Hopkins Press, 1955), p. 64.
    3. R. D. Hooker, “Beyond Vom Kriege: The Character and Conduct of Modern War,” Parameters, 35 (Summer 2005), 4.
    4. Paul Sperry, “The Pentagon Breaks the Islam Taboo,” FrontPage Magazine, 14 December 2005, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=20539.
    5. Antulio Echevarria, Towards an American Way of War (Carlisle, Pa.: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, March 2004).
    6. Patrick Poole, “The Muslim Brotherhood ‘Project,’” FrontPage Magazine, 11 May 2006, http:// www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=22415.
    7. Farhand Rajaee, Islamic Values and World View: Khomeyni on Man the State and International Poli- tics,” (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1983), p 71.
    8. Irfan Yusuf, “Theories on Islamic Books You Wouldn’t Read About,” Canberra Times, 21 July 2005, http://canberra.yourguide.com.au/detail.asp?class=your%20say&subclass=general&category=editorial%20 opinion&story_id=410105&y=2005&m=7.
    9. Malik, pp. I-ii.
    10. Ibid., p. 1.
    11. Ibid., pp. I-ii.
    12. See for example the discussion by Dr. Mary R. Habeck, “Jihadist Strategies in the War on Terrorism,”

    The Heritage Foundation, 8 November 2004, http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl855.cfm. 13. David Cook, Understanding Jihad, (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2005). There is approxi- mately 1,400 years of jihad scholarship beginning with Mohammed and his military campaigns. Classical ap- proaches to jihad as described by Mohammed’s successors, Abu Bakr for example, and the challenges
    presented by the struggles of succession to Mohammed. 14. Malik “Forward.”
    15. Ibid., “Preface,” p. I.
    16. Ibid., p. I. Note the Christian concept of the Trinity contained in the Nicene Creed is considered poly- theistic according to Islam. The Trinity is not tawhid.
    17. John Esposito, Islam, the Straight Path (3d ed.; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998), pp. 12-14, 89.
    18. Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 72; Khadduri, pp. 65, 70-72; Cook, Understanding Jihad, pp. 35-39.
    19. Brohi, “Preface,” p. ii.
    20. Ibid., p. iii.
    21. Ibid., p. iii.
    22. Cook, pp. 95-96. Cook places these concepts of
    jihad doctrine in the lineage of contemporary and

    radical theory.
    23. The indexed term for
    jihad is redirected to the term “Holy War” in this classic book of Islamic law or

    sharia by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveller, ed. and trans. Nuh Ha Mim Keller (Beltsville, Md.: Amana Publication, 1997).
    24. Malik, “Preface,” p. v.
    25. Ibid., p. vii.
    26. Cook, p. 107; Christoper Henzel, “The Origins of al Qaeda’s Ideology: Implications for US Strat-

    egy,” Parameters, 35 (Spring 2005), 69-80.
    27. Ishtiaq Ahmed,
    The Concept of an Islamic State: An Analysis of the Ideological Controversy in Paki-

    stan (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987).
    120 Parameters
    page13image32376page13image32536page13image32696page13image32856
    page14image432page14image592page14image752page14image912
    28. Malik, “Preface,” p. x. While in the Western tradition the state is viewed as a territorial and political body, based on “temporal elements such as shared memory, language, race, or the mere choice of its members.” Khomeini rejected this view, seeing the secular, political state and nationalism as Western constructs of imperi- alistic design to damage the cohesion of the ummah and impede the “advancement of Islam.” Rajaee, pp. 7, 67-71.
    29. Ibid., p. x.
    30. Khadduri, p. 63.
    31. Malik, p. 6.
    32. Ibid., p. 20.
    33. Ibid., pp. 20-21. (Baqara: 190).
    34. Malik, p. 11.
    35. Ibid., p. 22. (Baqara: 217) and (Nissaa: 76).
    36. Ibid., p. 23.
    37. Ibid., p. 29.
    38. Malik, p. 29. (Tauba: 7).
    39. Ibid., p. 31.
    40. Khadduri, p. 212. Jurists disagree on the allowable duration of treaties, the operative concept is that

    the dar al-Harb must be reduced to dar al-Islam over time. 41. Malik, p. 27.
    42. Ibid., pp. 33-34.
    43. Khadduri, p. 141.
    44. Malik, p. 40
    45. Ibid., pp. 37-38. (Baqara: 216).
    46. Ibid., pp. 42-44. (Al-I-Imran: 169-70) and (Nissa: 95). 47. Ibid., pp. 42-44.

    48. Cook, pp. 77, 124. 49. Malik, p. 49.
    50. Ibid., p. 54.
    51. Ibid., p. 57.

    52. Malik, p. 57. 53. Ibid., p. 57.
    54. Ibid., p. 58.
    55. Ibid., p. 58.
    56. Ibid., pp. 58-59. 57. Ibid., p. 60.

    58. Ibid., p. 144.
    59. Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), pp. 44-51, 128.
    60. Malik, p. 3.
    61. Ibid., p. 146.
    62. Ibid., p.58.
    63. “In Hijacker’s Bags, a Call to Planning, Prayer and Death,”
    Washington Post, 28 September 2001. 64. Malik, “Preface,” p. iii.

    65. Four notable examples are the Crimean War where French, British and Ottoman Forces allied against the Russians; Fuad Pasha of the Ottoman Army served as a coalition partner with French Army during the 1860 Rebellion in Syria; more recently Muslim Arab and Kabyle soldiers served in the Harkis of the French Army in the French-Algerian War; and, of course, today in Iraq. Malik would address some of these events as al- liances of convenience serving Islam’s interests in accord with the Quran and Sharia Law, others as takfir or treason.
    66. Cook, pp. 99-103. Peters, p. 130.

    The Reviewer: Lieutenant Colonel Joseph C. Myers is the Senior Army Advisor to the Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. A graduate of the US Military Academy he holds a Master of Arts from Tulane University. In 2004 he com- pleted a Senior Army Fellowship at the George C. Marshall European Center for Se- curity Studies. Previous assignments include Army Section Chief, US Military Group, Argentina. He also served as Chief of the South America Division and Senior Military Analyst for Colombia at the Defense Intelligence Agency.
    Winter 2006-07 121
    page14image27672page14image27832page14image27992page14image28152


    0 0






    PALESTINEBy Marvin X
    (Imam Maalik El Muhajir)

    I am not an Arab, I am not a Jew
    Abraham is not my father
    Palestine is not my home

    But I would fight any man

    Who kicked me out of my house
    To dwell in a tent

    I would fight

    To the ends of the earth

    Someone who said to me

    I want your house
    Because my father lived here

    Two thousand years ago

    I want your land

    Because my father lived here

    Two thousand years ago.

    Jets would not stop me

    From returning to my home

    Uncle Toms would not stop me

    Cluster bombs would not stop me
    Bullets I would defy.

    No man can take the house of another

    And expect to live in peace

    There is no peace for thieves

    There is no peace for those who murder

    For myths and ancient rituals

    Wail at the wall

    Settle in "Judea" and "Samaria"

    But fate awaits you

    You will never sleep with peace

    You will never walk without listening.
    I shall cross the River Jordan

    With Justice in my hand

    I shall return to Jerusalem

    And establish my house of peace,

    Thus said the Lord.

    Palestine was first published in Black Scholar Magazine, circa 1972. Marvin X is one of the founders of the Black Arts Movement and considered the father of Muslim American literature, along with other BAM poets inspired by the teachings of Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X, such as Askia Toure, Amiri Baraka and Sonia Sanchez. Bob Holman calls Marvin X the USA's Rumi. Ishmael Reed says he is Plato teaching on the streets of Oakland. His Academy of da Corner is at 14th and Broadway, downtown Oakland.  FYI, his academy is located wherever he sets up shop from coast to coast. 





































    0 0

     
    Change to 3 pm
    Although this isn't great for the people who got up at the crack of dawn to get to Oakland by 5 am, it does mean that more of you who could NOT have been there at that time have a chance to also make your presence felt. Tell your friends and anyone you know who cares about the  slaughter in Gaza and wants to let the world know that not all Americans approve of Washington spending our money and giving our votes to support Israel.



    Urgent Time Change: Block The Boat For Gaza - Update For This Saturday's Event

    Our Organizing Is Working! The Zim Ship Is Delaying It's Scheduled Unloading. The Ship Won't Be Unloaded in the Morning. So We Now Ask You to Come to West Oakland BART at 3pm Tomorrow (8/16), Not 5am as previously announced.
    Bring more people! Come louder and stronger and let's stop Israel at the Port of Oakland! Zionism isn't welcome in our town!
     There's going to be a beautiful, massive and powerful Boat Blockade on Saturday, August 16 to block the Israeli Zim ship from unloading in Oakland! It's a huge coalition led by the Arab Resource and Organizing Center (see bottom for endorsers). Meet at 3pm at the West Oakland BART  We are marching and carpooling to the Port of Oakland to show up for Palestine and stand down Israeli apartheid!
     ---  the International Action Center
    Facebook event link:
     
    Here's some logistical information. Also, we need your support to make this happen, not only by showing up to make your voice heard but also by helping to ensure that all folks are able to get to the Port.
     
    Updates
    For updates on the day's events, please sign up for our text message system we are using: text the word "join" to (510) 346-5951 to receive updates.
    Donations
    Please consider making a donation to Arab Resource and Organizing Center (AROC), which will help cover the numerous costs of this event, all of which goes directly to AROC to continue building movements for justice in Palestine.
    Transportation and Carpools
    If you can provide transportation support, PLEASE FILL OUT THIS FORM to let us know, and we will follow up with you to confirm. If you'd like to email us instead of filling out the online form, that works too! 
    • Do you have a bike cart for transporting stuff around the Port?
    • Would you like to help as a bike messenger or runner during the event?
    • Do you have a car, van or wheelchair-accessible vehicle you can use to drive people to the Port at 5am from West Oakland BART?
    • Are you able to pick up people from other locations, i.e. homes, and drive them to West Oakland BART starting at 4:45am?
    If you cannot arrange transportation to West Oakland BART, please let us know and we can help you find a ride. 
    Looking for a bus from outside Oakland to get you there? Early morning AC Transit Night Owl Bus
    Greeters
    We are also looking for greeters who can help greet people at West Oakland BART between 5am-6am, as well as make sure that people find rides to the Port. We will be gathering at the Blue "Dancing Lights" on 7th St. and Center St. right outside of the main entrance to West Oakland BART at 5am.
    Food and water
    Please bring your own food and water to the event if you are able. If you can contribute larger portions of food or have large containers for water, please contact us.
    Contact
    Email Josh at jhcadji at gmail.com if you can offer a ride, have donations or have any questions.
     
     
     
    Endorsed by:
    AF3IRM
    All African People’s Revolutionary Party (AAPRP)
    American Friends Service Committee
    American Muslims for Palestine
    ANSWER Coalition
    Arab Youth Organizing (AYO)
    AROC: Arab Resource & Organizing Center
    ASATA: Alliance of South Asians Taking Action
    BAYAN-USA
    Bay Area CodePink
    Bay Area Latin America Solidarity Coalition
    Berkeley Fellowship of Unitarian Universalists Social Justice Committee
    Black Organizing Leadership and Dignity (BOLD)
    Catalyst Project
    CodePink Washington
    Communist Party of San Francisco
    Critical Resistance – LA
    Critical Resistance – Oakland
    Descoloniza a Oakland/Decolonize Oakland
    Free Palestine Movement
    Freedom Archives
    Friends of Deir Ibzi’a
    Fuerza Mundial/Pueblos en Movimiento
    General Union of Palestine Students – SFSU
    Global Women’s Strike
    Gray Panthers of San Francisco
    Green Party of Alameda County
    Haiti Action Committee
    International Action Center
    International Jewish Anti Zionist Network
    International Socialist Organization
    International Tribunal of Conscience for Camilo
    ISM-Nor Cal
    IWW Bay Area Branch
    Jews for Palestinian Right of Return
    Justice for Palestinians
    La Voz de l@s trabajadores /Worker’s Voice
    Labor for Palestine
    Lake Merritt Neighbors Organized for Peace
    Malcolm X Grassroots Movement
    Marcha Patriotica (Colombia) – California chapter
    Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA)
    Movement Generation
    National Lawyers Guild SFBA Chapter
    Noam Chomsky
    NorCal Friends of Sabeel
    OccupySF Action Council
    ONYX Organizing Committee
    Palestinian Youth Movement
    Queers Undermining Israeli Terror
    Samidoun Palestinian Prisoner Solidarity Network
    San Francisco Green Party
    Socialist Organizer
    SOUL: School of Unity and Liberation
    Stanford Students for Justice in Palestine
    Students for Justice in Palestine – Cal
    Totally Radical Muslims
    Transport Workers Solidarity Committee
    US Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation
    US Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott
    US Palestinian Community Network
    World Can’t Wait Bay Area
    Workers World Party
    Xicana Moratorium

    From Seattle to Oakland to Los Angeles – turn the Israeli ship around!

    We encourage all of our allies on the West Coast to join us in ensuring that Zim ships are not welcome anywhere.

     
     

    0 0


    AFRICAN FUNDAMENTALISM
             by
             The Hon. Marcus Mosiah Garvey

    (August 17, 1887 - June 10, 1940)

    The time has come for the Blackman to forget and cast behind
    him his hero worship and adoration of other races, and to start
    out immediately to create and emulate heroes of his own. We must
    canonize our own martyrs and elevate to positions of fame and honor
    Black men and women who have made their distinct contributions to
    our racial history.

    Sojourner Truth is worthy of sainthood alongside of Joan of Arc.
    Crispus Attuck and George William Gordon are entitled to the halo
    of martyrdom with no less glory than that of the martyrs of any
    other race. Jacques Deselines' and Moshesh's brilliancy as
    soldiers and statesmen outshone that of a Cromwell, Napoleon, or
    Washington: hence they are entitled to the highest place as heroes
    among men.

    Africa has produced countless numbers of men and women, in war and
    in peace, whose lustre and bravery outshines that of any other
    people. Then why not see good and perfection in ourselves? We
    must inspire a literature and promulgate a doctrine of our own
    without any apologies to the powers that be. The right is the
    Blackman's and Africa's. Let contrary sentiments and cross
    opinions go to the winds. Oppositions to Race Independence is the
    weapon of the enemy to defeat the hopes of an unfortunate people.

    We are entitled to our own opinions and not obligated to or bound
    by the opinions of others. If others laugh at you return the
    laughter to them; if they mimic you return the compliment with
    equal force. They have no more right to dishonor, disrespect or
    disregard your feelings and manhood than you have in dealing with
    them. Honor them when they honor you; disregard them when they
    vilely treat you. Their arrogance is but skin deep and an
    assumption that has no foundation in morals or in Law.

    They have sprung from the same family tree of obscurity as
    we have; their history is as rude in its primitiveness as ours,
    their ancestors ran wild and naked, lived in caves and in branches
    of trees like monkeys as ours; they made sacrifices, ate the flesh
    of their own dead and the raw meat of wild beasts for centuries
    even as they accuse us of doing. Their cannibalism was more
    prolonged than ours; when we were embracing the Arts and Sciences
    on the banks of the Nile, their ancestors were still drinking
    human blood and eating out of the skulls of their conquered dead.

    When our civilization had reached the noon-day of progress, they
    were still running naked and sleeping in holes and caves with
    rats, bats, and other insects and animals. After we had already
    unfathomed the mystery of the Stars and reduced the Heavenly
    Constellations to minute and regular calculus they were still
    backwoodsmen, living in ignorance and blatant darkness.

    The world today is indebted to us for the benefits of civilization.
    They stole our Arts and Sciences from Africa. Then why should we
    be ashamed of ourselves? Their modern improvements are but
    duplicates of a grander civilization that we reflected thousands of
    years ago; without the advantage of what is buried and still
    hidden, to be resurrected and reintroduced by the intelligence of
    our generation and our posterity.

    Why should we be discouraged because somebody laughs at us today?
    Who can tell what tomorrow will bring forth? Did they not laugh at
    Moses, Christ, and Mohammed? Was there not a CARTHAGE, GREECE
    and ROME? We see and have changes everyday; so plan, work, be
    steadfast and do not be dismayed. As the Jew is held together by
    his religion, the white races by the assumption and the unwritten
    law of superiority, and the Mongolian by the precious tie of blood;
    so likewise the Blackman must be UNITED in one grand RACIAL
    HIERARCHY. Our union must know no climate, boundary or
    nationality.

    BLACK MEN THE WORLD OVER MUST PRACTICE ONE FAITH,
    THAT OF CONFIDENCE IN THEMSELVES, WITH: *ONE CAUSE.
    ONE GOAL. ONE DESTINY.

    Let no religious scruples, no political machination divide us,
    but let us hold together under all climates and in every country;
    making among ourselves a RACIAL EMPIRE upon which, "The Sun shall
    never set."

    Let no voice but your own speak to you from the depths; let no
    influence but your own rouse you in time of peace and time of war.
    Hear all but attend only to that which concerns you, your
    allegiance shall be to your Race, then to your family and your
    Country. Remember always that the Jew in his political and
    economic urge is always first a Jew, the white is first a white man
    under all circumstances; and you can do no less than being first
    and always a Blackman; then all else will take care of itself.
    Let no one inoculate you with evil doctrines to suit their
    conveniences. There's no humanity before that which starts with
    yourself, "CHARITY BEGINS AT HOME." First to thyself be true and
    thou canst not then be false to any man.

    NATURE first made us what we are and then out of our own
    creative genius we make ourselves what we want to be. Follow
    always that GREAT LAW. Let the SKY be your limit, and Eternity our
    Measurement. There's no height to which we cannot climb by using
    the active intelligence of our own mind. Mind creates, and as much
    as we desire in NATURE, we can have through the creation of our own
    minds. Being at present the scientifically weaker Race, you shall
    treat others only as they treat you, but in your homes and
    everywhere possible you must teach the higher development of
    science to your children; and be sure to develop a RACE of
    SCIENTISTS par excellence, for in Science and NATIONALISM lie our
    only hope to withstand the evil designs of modern materialism.

    Never forget your Cause. REMEMBER! We live, work and plan for
    the establishment of a great and binding RACIAL HIERARCHY;
    the founding of a RACIAL EMPIRE whose only natural, spiritual
    and political limits shall be: LIBERTY FOR AFRICANS, AT HOME
    AND ABROAD.

    0 0
  • 08/17/14--14:59: Blowback in Ferguson

  • Blowback in Ferguson 

    By Soraya Sepahpour-Ulrich
    August 15, 2014 "ICH" - The fatal shooting of an unarmed black teenager and the ensuing protests in Ferguson, Missouri has rocked America. Even the mainstream media with its aversion to the truth, has been forced to address the militarization of the police in America – albeit years too late.
    This is a short call from informing the mainstream media that the country has been living under pseudo martial law for decades.
    On April 13, 2013, the ACLU (Shasta Chapter) invited me to be their keynote speaker to talk about government secrecy, drones and militarization of America. The Ferguson shooting and its coverage it the media prompted me to highlight some of the points made during that talk as they relate to today’s events.
    Historians and political scientists have warned about dangerous war fever sweeping the United States. America’s entanglements overseas, its imperial ambitions, and the more recent “global war on terror”, a war of indefinite duration against an ill-defined shifting enemy, with no specific definition of victory, poses a grave danger to the very character of American government and society, unraveling the fabric of the Constitution.

    The framers of the Constitution recognized such dangers when they carefully subordinated the military to civilian authority and attempted to limit the power of the President to initiate war.Gregory Foster, a former Army officer and West Point graduate who now teaches national security studies at the National Defense University in Washington said that the principle of civilian control of the military—an early building block of American democracy- has been reversed and become the civilian subjugation to the military.

    Over half a century ago, Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson concluded "by giving way to the passion, intolerance and suspicions of wartime, it is easy to reduce our liberties to a shadow, often in answer to exaggerated claims of security."
    That day is here. Aside from constant surveillance, and the notorious “kill list”, war has been internalized and the militarization of the police force has put every American in danger. The biggest threat to Americans now comes from those who are paid to protect them. A threat which has been building for decades.
    During the Clinton administration Congress passed what's now known as the "1033 Program. The 1033 Progam formalized Reagan administration's directive to the Pentagon to share surplus military gear with domestic police agencies. Since then, millions of pieces of military equipment designed for use on a battlefield have been transferred to local cops -- SWAT teams and others -- including machine guns, tanks, and armored personnel carriers. The Pentagon's 1033 program has exploded under Obama.

    Clinton also created the "Troops to Cops" program, which offered grants to police departments who hired soldiers returning from battle, contributing even further to the militarization of the police force. But what is most alarming about the militarize police their training.

    Although the role of the police is to ‘protect and to serve’, they are being taught to kill. Lt. Col David Grossman (retired U.S. Army) is one such teacher. Grossman, unapologetically, told Front Line:

    “Prior preparation is the heart of what I do. I teach law enforcement. Today I just came from a conference where I trained 700 SWAT cops. And most of what I do is I train military and law enforcement in what I call the bulletproof mind. Just as today we have body armor that the guys in World War II didn't have, the same way we can have mental preparation that they didn't have. And this bulletproof mind is vital. Prior preparation is that one variable in the equation that we can control ahead of time, and one of the key things is embracing the responsibility to kill.”

    “I tell my soldiers, I tell my cops: "You've got the most difficult decision any human being will ever face. You have to decide whether or not to kill another human being."

    Well equipped, trained, and encouraged by the likes of [now former] Mayor Michael Bloombergand New York City police commissioner Raymond Kel who proudly brag of “hav(ing) my own army in the NYPD” and who used that army to spy on peaceful Occupy Wall Street protestors.”, it should come as no surprise that a SWAT team should blow a hole in a 2-year old, or the police kill an unarmed teenager, and all other horrific acts of violence we witness every day being committed by the cops.

    So why has the media been silent on the militarization of police up to this point? Well, they are the watchdogs of acceptable ideological messages, responsible for manufacturing consent - Their goal is to control the news and information available to society by using censorship and propaganda. Big media is not designed to serve the welfare of the public. 
    So why break the silence now? The internet has made it virtually impossible to hide facts, and quite possibly, mainstream media has decided to do some damage control and take over the reins in order to control the flow of information. Regardless of what big media wants us to believe, what we witness is a blowback. Our wars have come home to roost.
    Soraya Sepahpour-Ulrich is a Public Diplomacy Scholar and Independent Researcher. 
     

    0 0

    The Freedom Archives Benefit Concert, Dead Prez

    Ankh Marketing Presents

    THE FREEDOM ARCHIVES BENEFIT CONCERT

    DEAD PREZ

    Kev Choice, Jennifer Johns, Jahi As PE 2.0, Sellassie, DJ Leydis

    Thursday 8/21

    Doors: 8:00 pm / Show: 9:00 pm

    $15 Early Bird - $25 DOS

    THIS EVENT IS ALL AGES

    Under 21 must buy $5 drink ticket at the door.


    0 0


    0 0


    The Crisis in Black Homeownership

    How the recession turned owners into renters and obliterated black American wealth.

    In 2005, three years before the Great Recession, the median black household had a net worth of $12,124. Yes, this was far behind the median white household—which had a net worth of $134,992—but it was a huge improvement from previous decades, in which housing discrimination made wealth accumulation difficult (if not impossible) for the large majority of African-American families.
    By the official end of the recession in 2009, median household net worth for blacks had fallen to $5,677—a generation’s worth of hard work and progress wiped out. (The number for whites, by comparison, was $113,149.) Overall, from 2007 to 2010, wealth for blacks declined by an average of 31 percent, home equity by an average of 28 percent, and retirement savings by an average of 35 percent. By contrast, whites lost 11 percent in wealth, lost 24 percent in home equity, and gained 9 percent in retirement savings. According to a 2013 report by researchers at Brandeis University, “half the collective wealth of African-American families was stripped away during the Great Recession.”
    It was a startling retrenchment, creating the largest wealth, income, and employment gaps since the 1990s. And, if a new study from researchers at Cornell University and Rice University is any indication, these gaps are deep, persistent, and difficult to eradicate.
    In the study, called “Emerging Forms of Racial Inequality in Homeownership Exit, 1968–2009,” sociologist Gregory Sharp and demographer Matthew Hall examine the relationship between race and risk in homeownership. Simply put, African-Americans are much more likely than whites to switch from owning homes to renting them.
    “The 1968 passage of the Fair Housing Act outlawed housing market discrimination based on race,” explained Sharp in a press release. “African-American homeowners who purchased their homes in the late 1960s or 1970s were no more or less likely to become renters than were white owners. However, emerging racial disparities over the next three decades resulted in black owners who bought their homes in the 2000s being 50 percent more likely to lose their homeowner status than similar white owners.”
    This wasn’t a matter of personal irresponsibility. Even after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics, debt loads, education, and life-cycle traits like divorce or job loss, blacks were more likely to lose their homes than whites.
    If you’re familiar with American history and housing policy, this shouldn’t come as a surprise.The explicit housing discrimination of the mid-20th century has left a mark—arguably a scar—on the landscape of American homeownership. The combination of redlining, block-busting, racial covenants, and other discriminatory measures means that, even now, a majority of blacks live in neighborhoods with relatively poor access to capital and mortgage loans. What’s more, this systematic discrimination has left many black households unable to afford down payments or other housing costs, even if loans are available.
    And in the event that black households are able to save and afford a home, they aren’t as financially secure as their white counterparts. To wit, middle-class African-Americans are more likely to belong to the lower middle class of civil servants and government workers—professions that, in the last five years, have been slashed as a consequence of mass public-sector downsizing. All else being equal, a black schoolteacher who loses her job to budget cuts is less likely to have savings—and thus a safety net—than her white counterpart.
    But this isn’t just a story of legacies and effects. In addition to showing the consequences of past discrimination, Sharp and Hall argue that African-Americans have been victimized by a new system of market exploitation. Banks like Wells Fargo steered blacks and other minorities into the worst subprime loans, giving them less favorable terms than whites and foreclosing on countless homes. In a 2012 lawsuit, the ACLU and National Consumer Law Center alleged that the now-defunct New Century Financial, working with Morgan Stanley, pushed thousands of black borrowers into the riskiest loans, leaving many in financial ruin. As early as 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported that blacks were twice as likely to receive subprime loans. And in a New York University study published last year, researchers found that black and Hispanic families making more than $200,000 a year were more likely to receive subprime loans than white families making less than $30,000.
    Together, all of this means that—according to Sharp and Hall—African-Americans are 45 percent more likely than whites to lose their homes. That means they’re more likely to lose their accumulated wealth and to slide down the income ladder, and less likely to pass the advantages of status and mobility to their children.
    Apropos of that observation, recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics shows an incredible level of youth unemployment for blacks and Latinos. More than 21 percent of African-Americans aged 16 to 24 are out of work, compared with a national average of 14.2 percent. For black teenagers in particular, joblessness soars to nearly 40 percent. It’s a catastrophe with serious economic consequences. The Center for American Progressestimates that the young adults who experienced long-term unemployment during the worst of the recession will lose more than $20 billion in earnings over the next 10 years. And given the slow recovery, odds are good they’ll never recover those lost earnings.
    It’s tempting to treat these as subsets of broader problems: poor assistance to homeowners and too much austerity. But they’re not. Even during the boom economy of the 1990s, black employment lagged behind the national average. And the racial wealth gap is a persistent fact of American life.
    Likewise, the challenges of black homeownership are a function of discriminatory housing policy, as are a whole host of other problems, from mass incarceration and overly punitive policing to poor air quality and food access. These challenges are heavily location-dependent, which is another way to say they are heavily racialized and most prevalent in the segregated, working-class or low-income communities that characterize life for most African-Americans, even those with middle-class incomes.
    For reasons both political and ideological, it’s nearly verboten in mainstream conversation to argue that racialized problems require race-conscious solutions. Knowing what we know about the demographics of foreclosures, for example, we should ensure any program to help underwater homeowners includes a specific measure to assist black victims of predatory lending, who may need additional help to get on sure footing.
    For more than anyone else, this is a message for liberals and progressives, who—for all of their racial sensitivity—are still reluctant to tackle the economic dimensions of racism, even as they represent the vast majority of nonwhite voters and draw critical support from African-American constituencies. It’s how Elizabeth Warren could give “11 Commandments for Progressives”—and receive huge applause—without mentioning the deep problems of racial inequality. One of her commandments is “that no one should work full-time and still live in poverty, and that means raising the minimum wage.” But solving this problem for African-Americans and Latinos—who tend to live in areas that are segregated from job opportunities—is very different than solving it for whites.
    While conservatives and Republicans can play a role here, it’s Democrats who are committed to reducing income inequality and bringing balance to our lopsided economic system. Success on those fronts requires a return to race-conscious policymaking, from programs to increase the geographic mobility of low-income workers—relocation grants for individuals or transportation grants for communities with a spatial mismatch between jobs and housing—to public works programs aimed at low-income minority communities, to race-based affirmative action as a way to boost a flagging black middle class.
    There’s little in American life that escapes the still-powerful pull of past and present racism, and effective policymaking—to say nothing of effective problem-solving—requires a response to that racism. Otherwise, we entrench the same disparities for a new generation.

    0 0



    0 0

     
    NIGHT OF PAIN – NIGHT OF RAGE
    © ’14 Mumia Abu-JamalColumn written, August 11, 2014
    Once again, a Black unarmed youth has been killed by a cop.
    And while the facts surrounding the shooting are presently unclear, what is clear is that a cop shot 18 year old Michael Brown 8 times.
    According to at least one eyewitness, Brown was shot as he stood with his hands up in the air.
    To anyone who knows American history, this is not a rarity.
    It is the result of a systematic function of police across the country, to repress, track and target the nation’s Black population.
    That has been the case for generations.
    We shall see voices trotted out to call for calm, as outrage arises in Black hearts in response to outrageous treatment. Never do those calling for calm become voices calling for true justice, for justice is equality; and who dare demand that cops be treated like the people that they oppress?
    For they have no influence over the repressive forces, and in fact, no political office in America does. They have been bought off, paid off – or both.
    Listen to the voices of ‘Black’ politicians.
    Indeed, listen to the voices of white politicians.
    Listen to the raging silence.
    Needed in the suburbs of St. Louis, Missouri – and in every Black community in America – are independent, and uncompromising Black revolutionary collectives – determined to protect the lives and wellbeing of Black people –period.
    Existing political structures – silent in the face of these outrages –have failed us, and cannot be made to serve our interests.
    It’s time to learn from this, and build for our future necessities.
    --©’14maj


    0 0



    Russia signs 30-year gas deal with China

    Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller and CNPC Chairman Zhou shake hands with Russian President PutinGazprom CEO Alexei Miller (centre) and CNPC Chairman Zhou Jiping shake hands as Russian President Putin looks on during the signing ceremony in Shanghai

    Related Stories

    Russia's President Vladimir Putin has signed a multi-billion dollar, 30-year gas deal with China.
    The deal between Russia's Gazprom and China National Petroleum Corp (CNPC) has been 10 years in the making.
    Russia has been keen to find an alternative energy market for its gas as it faces the possibility of European sanctions over the crisis in Ukraine.
    No official price has been given but it is estimated to be worth over $400bn.
    President Putin said in a statement to the Russian news channel Rossiya: "The price is satisfactory for both sides.
    "It is tied, like it is envisaged in all our international contracts with Western partners, specifically our partners in Western Europe, to the market price on oil and oil products. It is an absolutely calibrated, general formula for pricing."
    Gazprom shares rose 2% on the news.
    How significant is the deal?
    The agreement, signed at a summit in Shanghai, is expected to deliver some 38 billion cubic metres of natural gas a year eastward to China's burgeoning economy, starting around 2018.
    The main argument has been over price and China is thought to have been driving a hard bargain.
    Over the last 10 years it has found other gas suppliers. Turkmenistan is now China's largest foreign gas supplier, and last year it started importing piped natural gas from Myanmar.
    Alexei Miller, Chief Executive of Gazprom said the new deal was "the biggest contract in the entire history of the USSR and Gazprom - over 1 trillion cubic metres of gas will be supplied during a whole contractual period."
    line
    Analysis: Jamie Robertson, BBC News
    The gas deal between Russia and China was signed at 04:00 China time, which gives some indication of the level of urgency over these talks. Mr Putin appears to have been determined not to leave Shanghai without a deal - and he got one.
    But the financial details are a "commercial secret", so we don't know how much he had to give away to get it. Certainly China needs the gas to help it cut its coal-fired smog levels, and it wants to diversify supply. But it had the luxury of time in which to negotiate, something Mr Putin was short of.
    The perceived motive for the deal is that Russia needs a second market for its gas, so it can face up to European sanctions. Given that the "Power of Siberia" pipeline won't start pumping gas into Chinese factories until 2018 at the earliest, its economic effect on the European crisis will be limited.
    More important may be the investment that China will make into Russia's power and transport infrastructure. Putin may not have managed to sign the most advantageous of gas deals on Wednesday but the opening of economic doors with China could well be the greater achievement.
    line
    Rain Newton-Smith, head of emerging markets at Oxford Economics, said: "The whole tenet of the deal has a symbolic value - it says that the two countries are prepared to work with one another. For instance there were other elements such as Chinese participation in Russian transport infrastructure and power generation.
    "It is similar in many ways to China's investments in Africa where they drive a hard bargain over the price of raw materials but then provide infrastructure for the economies they are doing business with.
    Jonathan Marcus, the BBC's defence and diplomatic correspondent said tensions between Russia and the west were not just over Ukraine: "There are fundamental differences over Syria and about the whole direction in which President Vladimir Putin is taking his country.
    "Thus this deal could symbolise an important moment of transition - when both in economic and geo-political terms, Russia's gaze begins to look more towards the East than towards the West."
    Siberian power
    Another sticking point on the deal has been the construction of pipelines into China.
    Currently there is one complete pipeline that runs across Russia's Far East to the Chinese border, called The Power of Siberia. It was started in 2007, three years after Gazprom and CNPC signed their initial agreement in 2004.
    But financing the $22-30bn cost of sending it into China has been central to the latest discussions.
    China is Russia's largest single trading partner, with bilateral trade flows of $90bn (£53bn) in 2013.
    The two neighbours aim to double the volume to $200bn in 10 years.

    0 0





    There are two choices in this matter. Mumia calls for an independent collective. The other alternative is to demand the US do for the hoods what the US did in Iraq and is doing in Afghanistan to stop violence. They gave the so called insurgents three things to lay down their arms: housing, education and jobs. This is the solution for the hood, but the top priority is community security. The young men and women can secure the community. Thus, there is no need for police unless called upon by community security forces. ALSO, THERE IS NO NEED FOR THE DOPE MAN TO BE THE NUMBER ONE EMPLOYER OF YOUTH. IF YOUTH CAN SELL DOPE, THEY CAN SELL ANY AND EVERYTHING.--Marvin X

    0 0


older | 1 | .... | 58 | 59 | (Page 60) | 61 | 62 | .... | 168 | newer